DECENCY and MODESTY PASTORAL LETTER OF HIS EXCELLENCY THE MOST REVEREND ALBERT G. MEYER, S.T.D., S.S.L. ARCHBISHOP OF MILWAUKEE May 1, 1956

DECENCY
and MODESTY
A PASTORAL LETTER OF
HIS EXCELLENCY THE MOST REVEREND
ALBERT G. MEYER, S.T.D., S.S.L.
ARCHBISHOP OF MILWAUKEE

May 1, 1956



To THE CLERGY, RELIGIOUS, AND FAITHFUL LAITY OF THE
ARCHDIOCESE OF MILWAUKEE: GREETINGS AND BLESSING!
Dearly Beloved in Christ:
I. INTRODUCTION – SUBJECT MATTER OF Tars PASTORAL

  1. In the discharge of his pastoral office, a Bishop frequently
    remembers the solemn words which he heard chanted in the rite
    of his consecration as a Bishop: “Let him not put light for darkness,
    nor darkness for light; let him not call evil good, nor good evil.”
    In the desire to fulfill the charge given to us as your pastor, whose
    duty it is to protect his flock against the enemy (cf. Jn. 10:11-13),
    and as an appointed watchman of God, who must speak out m
    clear and explicit warnings, lest the sins of those who err be charged
    to his account (cf. Ezech. 33:8-9), we have decided to address
    this letter to you, on the occasion of the annual convention of our
    Chnstian Mothers’ Confratermty. In this letter, it is our thought
    to consider the general subject of Decency which has been a part
    of the special apostolate of this Confraternity. We wish to treat
    this subject only in several of the more obvious areas of everyday
    life, leavmg to future pastoral letters the further development of other
    topics which come under the general subject matter.
    a) Statements of Our Holy Father
  2. We are impelled to do this as we recall some of the recent
    forceful statements of our Holy Father, the Chief Shepherd and
    Teacher of the Church, particularly a special letter which he com-
    manded to be wnttcn 011 th1~ subject through the Sacred Congregation of the C ouncrl, under date of August 15, 1954 In this letter,
    the Cardmal Prefect of the Congregation, wntmg m the name of the
    Sovereign Pontiff, solemnly charged the Bishops of the world “by all
    means to consider the matter carefully, and to take under your care
    and promote with all your power everythmg which has to do wit~
    the protection of modesty and the furtherance of Chnstian morals.
    This solemn charge was in keeping with the whole purpose of
    the Marian Year of 1954, which was intended “not only to serve
    to revive Catholic Faith and earnest devotion to the Mother of
    God in the souls of all, but also . . . that each one of us ~hould
    according to his condition in life, avail of it for the acquisition of
    virtue. (For), the commemoration of the mystery of the Most Holy
    Virgin conceived immaculate and immune from all stam of ongmal
    sin, should, in the first place, urge us to that inn?cence and mte~tr,
    of life which flees from and abhors even the slightest stam of sm
    (Fulgens Corona, September 8, 1953).
    In the course of that Manan Year of 1954, our Holy Father referred
    many times to this important crusade for the revival and flowermg
    of Christian morals. Moreover, he did not confine l11S statements to
    general exhortations, but specifically pointed to practical areas of
    everyday life, where the application of Christian principles especially
    needs to be made.
    Thus, for example, wnting on January l, 1954, in a letter to the
    Bishops of Italy, on the general subject of television, h<;, called
    attention to the fact that this marvel of our modern day is very
    intimately bound up with the education of ~o~t~ and even the
    sanctity of the home.” Without in any way rnmmuzmg the actual,
    or, even more so, the potential good of television, th~ Holy Father
    warns nevertheless that there is much that it is failing to do. He
    savs therefore that “We cannot fail to proclaim to all who have
    a;y’ position ~f responsibility in television that _the1~ duties and
    responsibilities are most grave before God and s_oc1ety … There rests
    upon public authorities, the Holy Father continues, the duty. of
    taking every precaution that the air of punty and reserve which
    should pervade the home be m no way offended or disturbed.”
    In connection with television, he mentions that he has constantly
    in mmd “the painful spectacle of the power for evil and moral ruin
    of cinema films.” He is “horrified at the thought that the poisoned
    atmosphere of materialism, of frivolity, of hedonism, can by means
    of television be brought into the very sanctuary of the home.”
    Television, he says, requires a greater vigilance for secunng telecasts
    2
    unobjectionable from the moral point of view than is required for
    pubhc entertamment, precisely because this modern invention “penetrates the sanctuary of the family.” Here, in the bosom of the family,
    higher values are at stake “than the pretended nghts of absolute
    freedom of art, or of havmg recourse to the pretext of freedom of
    information and of thought.”
    Agam, m a notable address to the Swiss National Catholic Convention (May 16, 1954), our Holy Father spoke of the great dangers
    of matenalism. Among other thmgs he said: “Material progress
    through research and the exploitation of natural forces contmues
    its unceasing advance. The Church approves of this advance, even
    in regard to its principles. But, she adds an urgent warning concernmg it: When matenal progress is not counterbalanced by powerful
    religious and moral forces, rt nsks becommg the cancer of human
    society.”
    The Marian Year, our Holy Father further stated in the same
    address, was mtended to help strengthen our faith “as a dam against
    the rismg tide of materialism.” This materialism he defined as “the
    process of the secularization of all life.” He stated that “it is
    spreading in the spiritual and religious domain. The idea of God,
    respect for and fear of God are more and more being banished from
    public life, from the family, and, almost mevitably, therefore, from
    the hfe of the individual as well. THE PROCESS IS ALREADY
    FAR ADVANCED.”
    Hence, there falls upon us the duty of confronting this evil “by
    our prayers, our love for Chnst, our struggle against sin, and for
    purity of soul in every sense, by all those supreme values of the
    religious life and the things which are its fruit, and by our public
    enlistment in the cause of God, of Christ, and of His Church …
    In the fight against materialism the watchword must be, ‘Let us
    return to the Christianity of early days.’ This is especially applicable
    now. The Chnstians of those early times were confronted by a
    pagan and materialist culture, which reigned as mistress. They dared
    to attack it and, finally, to overcome it, thanks to their stubborn
    tenacity and by means of heavy sacrifices. IMITATE THEM!”
  3. Most pertinent to our present letter is the point frequently
    made by our Holy Father that the spread of so much immorality
    is due not to the lack of regulations, but “to the lack of reaction or
    the weakness of reaction of good people, who have not known how
    to make timely denunciations of violations against the public laws
    of morality.”
    This lack of the proper kind of public reaction is referred to agam
    3
    m the letter of August 15, 1954, and applied specifically to the matter
    of dress: “A” all can easily see, the current mode of dress among
    women and especially among girls ( during the summer months
    particularly) constitutes a senous offense against decency.” Because
    he is convinced of the intimate relationship between the decent
    and the modest, and between the modest and the chaste, the Holy
    Father exhorts: “Therefore, it is altogether imperative to admonish
    and exhort, m whatever way seems most apt, people of all stations,
    but particularly youth, to avoid the dangers of this kind of vice,
    which is so directly opposed and potentially so hazardous to Christian and civic virtue.”
    Hence, the Jetter continues: “It is the earnest desire of the
    August Pontiff that this cause be taken up enthusiastically. He desires
    that bishops m particular leave no stone unturned which can help
    remedy the situation; and that with their counsel and leadership the
    rest of the clergy work prudently, assiduously, and earnestly within
    their own jurisdiction, toward the happy attainment of this goal.”
    Further, “he wishes fathers and mothers of families to remove
    their children from these dangers, first by their own example, and
    then also by timely admonitions which come from a stern firmness of
    spirit as befits Christians; and that they never be satisfied until they
    see the faces of their children shine with the splendor of modesty.”
    As may be seen, the language of this letter constitutes a real
    challenge. It is directed to us in the form of an “imperative,” to
    “people of all stations,” to the Bishops and Clergy, to fathers and
    mothers of families. It is a cause to be taken up “enthusiastically,”
    in which “we leave no stone unturned which can help to remedy
    the situation.”
    b) Our Own Former Statements
  4. In keeping, therefore, with this and other repeated exhortations
    of our Holy Father, we have wished in vanous ways to fulfill our
    duty, and to bring this subject to your attention, either directly
    or indirectly.
    Thus, for example, toward the beginning of the Mauan Year, we
    addressed a pastoral letter under date of February 5, 1954, on the
    g~neral subject of modesty. At that time we wished particularly to
    give encouragement to the program of the Legion of Decency, and
    to the work which the vanous organizations of our Archdiocese were
    doing to promote the ideals of Chnstian modesty in the movies, in
    4
    literature, and in dress. Also, we called especially upon our fathers
    and mothers to defend the castles of their homes against the inroads
    of pagan standards of morality.
    Annually, we have exhorted you to take the pledge of the Legion
    of Decency, . in the full r~lization of the meaning of this pledge.
    We have tried to make it clear that decency involves more than
    motion pictures; that it extends to the whole realm of living. We
    have stressed the truth that decency in a special way is involved
    ~th public morality, and with the creation of strong public opinion
    m favor of. the moral orde~. Hence, we have insisted that the Pledge
    of the Legion of Decency is a call to crusade for decency in all walks
    of life, not merely in the field of motior pictures, but also in all
    related fields of public communications and public living. There is
    need today, we stressed, to apply the spirit of the Pledge to the
    matter of dress, of reading material, of radio and television and of
    company-keeping. ‘
    To. further implement these exhortations concerning the true
    me~ung of the Pledge, we have organized a special Archdiocesan
    Legion of Decency, which is intended to exert its influence and
    extend its help through other existing organizations of our men
    and women. Thus we have endeavored to give more practical direction and efficacy to the general crusade for decency.
    Again, ~ few months ago, we addressed a pastoral letter to you
    on the subject of the Catholic Family, in which we appealed, through
    the Holy Name Society, and especially to fathers of families to lead
    the way within the bosom of their own families for this much
    needed crusade on behalf of decency. We begged you to make the
    home a tr~~ sanctuary, so t~at those who live in it “will be guided
    by th~ spmt of reverence, m the decorations which hang on the
    walls, m the dress which is worn, in the magazines and papers which
    are read, in the words which are spoken, in the company which is
    kept, and in the manner itself of company-keeping.”
    . In_ our ~ent~n Pastoral of this year, we spoke at length upon the
    dignity which 1s conferred upon us by our Baptism, and we appealed
    to you to remember this dignity as Baptized Children of God:
    “P aren t s an d e d ucators, ” we state d , ” are urged to develop in children a profound sense of their dignity as children of God, and to
    teach them to recognize this dignity in others. Thus our children
    ~il! _develo~ tha~ sense of personal conscience and individual responsibility which is the fundamental solution to the problem of
    juvenile delinquency.”
  5. Because this subject is from many different viewpoints so con5
    tmuously urgent, we have wished to seize the occasion of this annual
    meeting of the Archdiocesan Confraternity of Chnstian Mothers to
    speak to you, and especially to the mothers of our families, about it.
    This meeting is being held close to the Sunday which our nation
    has set aside to honor our human mothers. In the words of a former
    president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, “the mother is
    the one supreme asset of national life, she is more important by far
    than the successful statesman or businessman or artist or scientist.
    In other words, we cannot as a nation get along at all 1£ we haven’t
    the right kind of home life. Such a hfe rs not only the supreme
    duty; but also the supreme reward of duty.”
    More sigmficant even than these considerations for us is the fact
    that this meeting is held in the month of May dedicated to our
    Blessed Mother. As Catholics we believe that Jesus is the Son of
    God, Who willed to receive His own true membership in the human
    family through Mary, and Who also willed to confide to her
    maternal protection the whole human race in the person of John,
    when He said: “Behold thy mother.” We tum, therefore, to Mary
    in our modem days of crisis and penl, and call upon her to save us
    from ourselves. We ask her to bless us in our efforts to contribute
    toward the solution of the moral crisis as it affects our own mdividual lrves, and those of our family and our community.
    II. THE PROBLEM
  6. One phase of this problem in the moral cnsis was described
    in the letter of the Sacred Congregation of the Council of August
    15, 1954, and referred to above 111 our letter. “Everyone knows,”
    this letter states, “that durmg the summer months particularly, thmgs
    are seen here and there which are certain to prove offensive to
    anyone who has retained some respect and regard for Chnstian
    virtue and human modesty. On the beaches, in summer resorts,
    almost everywhere, on the streets of cities and towns, in private and
    public places, and, indeed, often even 111 buildings dedicated to
    God, an unworthy and indecent mode of dress has prevailed …. Add
    to this fact that newspapers, magazmes and every kmd of pubhcation
    bla~ntly p_ublicize all the evil happenings m public and pnvate life.
    Motion pictures, also well attended as they are, present their
    attractions in such glowing light that not only weak and unwary
    youth but even the adult is swayed by their evil allurements.”
    6
  7. This problem is referred to from another viewpoint in the
    annual statement of the American Bishops of 1953, on the general
    subject of the Dignity of Man, in the following words: “Heedless
    that his nature has God for its origin and destiny, and reason and
    revelation for its divinely commissioned guide, man will do what
    no other creature can – he will deny his true nature and will destroy
    all that is good within himself. Such a process of degradation is
    viciously at work in our own country, where the deification of the
    flesh continues to enlist new devotees. Through its liturgy of advertisement, entertainment and literature, this cult bids fair to corrode
    our national sense of decency. . .. The Catholic Church has never
    failed to accord the human body an immense measure of honor.
    She affirms that it was originally created by God; in one instance
    actually assumed by Him; in every instance meant to be on earth
    His special temple, and destined eventually to rejoin the soul in
    His Beatific Presence. Whatever is uncompromising in her teaching
    about the body stems from her realism on two points: The body,
    though good, is not the highest good; and the undisciplined body
    is notoriously bad.”
    a) Concern for the Problem
  8. This is a problem, then, which concerns the individual, the
    family, and society at large. Chastity, and the means of preserving
    it, have a tremendously important bearing on the family, on the
    eternal and temporal happiness of every individual, and indeed on
    the welfare of society at large.
    History is replete with the story of nations that once were great
    and that collapsed because the morals of the race ceased to control
    the lives of the people. The poet of ancient pagan Rome wrote:
    “Vice necessarily follows upon public nudity,” while its great
    orator, Cicero, lamented the decadence of civic virtue precisely
    because “we see too often those who are stripped of shame and
    who are past all hope of reformation.”
  9. We do not mean to imply that others, outside the Church,
    are not also concerned about chastity, as well as the defensive virtues
    of decency and modesty. They are, even though their concern may
    not stem from the same motivation which impels us. A government
    report has this to state: “Pornography is big business. The extent to
    which the profit motive has brushed aside all generally accepted
    standards of decency and good taste and substituted inferior moral
    7
    standards, has become not only a national disgrace but a menace
    to our civic – elfare as well.”
    This report stems from the criterion of decency and good taste,
    and is based on sound mterest and responsibility for the good name
    cf our nation and the civic welfare of our people. As Christians
    and Catholics, however, we must proceed from a higher standard,
    and a more powerful motive. We proceed from the recognition of
    sin as a violation of the law of God, and we are motivated by the
    eternal salvation of souls; it is the welfare of souls, whom we wish
    to save from hell, that is at stake.
    There rs indeed much discussion of the topic of chastity in our
    secular magazines, but generally only to the extent that the spectacularly tragic forms of unchastity are highlighted, while little or no
    interest is shown in the virtue itself. The attitude of the world
    seems to be that if only we could do away with such things as
    juvenile delinquency in its external forms, unmarried motherhood,
    venereal disease, ugly degeneracy and rape, there would be no problem of unchastity left at all. As a matter of fact, many in the world
    have adopted and promote certain forms of unchastity, such as
    contraception and multiple successive marriages, not to mention the
    crime of abortion, without recognizing the inevitable connection
    between these things and the breakdown of chastity all along the
    line. In some of the very magazines and newspapers that carry
    articles deploring sex delinquency, there will often be found inflammatory incentives to lust in the form of seminude and suggestive
    pictures, or advertisements for the movies, or cartoons with suggestive dialogues, or even news stories with suggestive overtones.
    Even, at times, feature stories, highlighted by perfectly proper
    pictures, will suggest, with amusing ( to them) toleration or approval
    for public consumption, the bawdy attitude of the peek show or the
    burlesque performance – something which no self-respecting newspaper or magazine would have dared to do in former years when
    a less secularistie way of life prevailed. Such papers lead their readers
    to the doorstep of impurity and unchastity through these stones,
    pictures, cartoons, and advertisements, and then bewail the fact
    that so many of them step across the threshold.
  10. Others show their concern for and recognition of the problem
    by advoca!ing an indiscriminate dissemination of knowledge, in the
    thought that knowledge alone will solve the problem. Surely, it is
    most important that our growing youth be properly instructed. All
    solid moral guidance is based upon adequate instruction. This is
    basic for the practice of the faith in general, and specifically for
    8
    the practice of the virtues under consideration in this letter.
    Nevertheless, we wish to seize this opportunity of calling attention
    to a fatal trend of our times which takes prerogatives that belong
    essentially to the family out of the home, and invests them in the
    State or an agency of the State. Here we would like to remind our
    people of the statement of the American Bishops in their pastoral
    letter of 1950: “We protest in strongest possible terms against the
    introduction of sex instruction into the schools. To be of benefit
    such instruction must be far broader than the imparting of information, and must be given individually. Sex rs more than a biological
    function. It is bound up with the sacredness and uniqueness of
    human personality. It can be fully and properly appreciated only
    within a religious and moral context. If treated otherwise, the child
    will see it apart from the controlling purpose of his life, which is
    the service to God.”
    This statement is not to be construed to mean that educators have
    no function whatsoever along these lines. Carrying through with the
    basic concept of the school as an extension of the home, we do
    recognize also in this field a place for the educator to assist the
    parent. But the obligation rests primarily with the parent; and
    education in these matters must always be within the religious and
    moral context which the home should give to it. That the Church
    is not opposed to the proper kind of instruction in these matters
    should be clear from this one quotation from our Holy Father:
    “Modesty will suggest and provide suitable words for parents and
    educators by which the youthful conscience will be formed in matters
    of chastity. ‘Wherefore,’ we said in a recent address, ‘this modesty
    is not to be so understood as to be equivalent to a perpetual silence
    on this subject, nor as allowing no place for sober and cautious
    discussion about these matters in imparting moral instruction.’ In
    modern times, however, there are some teachers and educators who
    too frequently think it their duty to initiate innocent boys and girls
    into the secrets of human generation in such a way as to offend their
    sense of shame. But in this matter a just temperance and moderation
    must be used, as Christian modesty demands” (Encyclical on Holy
    Virginity, March 25, 1954).
    b) Challenge and Opportunity for Our People
  11. In confronting the problem, in the dimensions outlined in
    our present letter, we do so primarily for the guidance of our own
    9
    people, through an appeal particularly to our Christian Mothers.
    We are realistic enough to recognize that the simple writmg of a
    letter of this kmd is not gomg to change over those whose view of
    hfe sharply disagrees with our own. We think, however, that it is
    important to point out the truth that our society has become secularistic and materialistic to a degree that many of us have failed
    to recogmze. In the words of Pope Pius XII, quoted above, “the
    process is already far advanced.”
    Therefore, we address this letter primarily to om own people.
    We Catholics constitute a minority group m the general society m
    which we live and move This fact places before us both a challenge
    and an opportumty. In many ways, it is not unlike the situation
    which faced the early Christians.
    The challenge may be expressed in these words of our Holy
    Father: “The civilization of the Western people cannot sink into
    a materialism which, at least implicitly, finds its ideal in the enjoyment of the comforts of life. On the contrary, it must dedicate
    itself to liberatmg those spiritual values which are so bitterly opposed
    in many modem institutions” (September 18, 1955).
    This challenge must be met by a willmgness on our part to be
    different. We cannot compromise our traditional Catholic moral
    and cultural values, but rather we must bring these values to bear
    on public and private life, and must defend them as modem witnesses (martyrs) to Christ, Again, to quote our Holy Father: “If
    it is more than evident that evil tendencies and the forces of
    degradation and destruction are unceasingly attacking the hearts of
    individuals and the collective conscience of nations, is it not necessary to work at all levels of the social structure – the family, places
    of employment and amusement, political and cultural organizations
  • to eliminate demoralizing factors and all that keeps egoism alive
    and encourages a spmt of pleasure or power? Certainly, men are
    not lacking who are eager to meet the demands of their consciences” (ibid.).
    Hence we are pleased to encourage our Christian Mothers to
    recall here the challenging statement found in the resolutions drawn
    up by the National Council of Catholic Women at the close of
    their 1952 convention:
    “Offenses against decency are not only the cause of personal offense
    to women but give them serious concern for the welfare of their
    loved ones and their fellowmen. Not overlooking the praiseworthy
    exceptions, for which we are profoundly grateful, we are confronted
    on all sides, in newspapers, magazines, in every type of advertising
    10
    media and displays, in all fields of entertainment, including radio
    and television, in beauty contests, and elsewhere, with constant
    affronts to public decency and good taste.
    “This can only result, and has already resulted, in the lowering of
    ideals of modesty and decorum, assaults on purity and chastity,
    the degradation of womanhood, evil consequences for the sanctity
    of married life, stimulation of unworthy thoughts and desires, morbid
    emphasis on sex, with consequent corrupting influences on youth –
    and especially on the youth in the Armed Forces – an increase of
    sex crimes among adolescents, whose moral stamina has been undermined by constant pictorial assaults, scandal to the people of other
    countries, who obtain an entirely false impression of the American
    way of life, and the exploitation by communists of such pictures in
    their propaganda against the United States.
    “As individuals and organizations of Catholic women, we here
    express our determination to put a stop to the irresponsible or
    deliberately-evil flood that has had these alarming consequences.
    We are happy to acknowledge not only the concern of Catholics,
    but also of other men and women in private and in public life
    who have the discernment to see the extremely serious harm that
    is the result.
    “We pledge full support of corrective action programs that are
    suggested by the National Council, and assume individual responsibility for doing everything possible to restore decent standards
    where they have become debased.
    “Producers, publishers and distributors have a real and definite
    obligation to the nation that has made possible the opportunities
    that are theirs. If they make financial advantage their main end, they
    are unworthy of this great nation. If they cannot see higher considerations in these critical times, then at least they should open
    their eyes to what is at stake: Life in the fulness of moral integrity
    and responsible freedom, or slavery under a despotic state which
    forces all men and all media to serve its ends.”
  1. We appeal, then, to our people to be, both through word
    and through example, a leaven in the modem world. It is up to
    us to prove ourselves useful for the spiritual and moral progress
    of the environment in which we live. In the specific matter under
    consideration in this pastoral letter, this challenge and this opportunity will prompt us to proclaim in every possible way the truth
    of the Christian virtue of purity and chastity, and the beauty of
    the Christian virtue of modesty and decency. “Thus may we hope
    to see emerging more clearly the true countenance of man, master
    11
    not only of things but above all of himself and aware of his transcendent destiny, individual and social, as well as his responsibilities
    as a creature made in God’s image” (Pius XII, September 18, 1955).
    Thus may we show to all the world our complete acceptance of the
    teaching of St. Paul, that “the body is not for immorality, but for
    the Lord, and the Lord for the body” (1 Cor. 6:13).
    m. THE VmTUE oF CHAsTITY
  2. We cannot, Dearly Beloved, write intelligently about the
    virtue of modesty, unless we emphasize first of all in strong and
    clear terms the universal importance of chastity. For, modesty, by
    its very definition, is looked upon as the shield and safeguard of
    chastity. The breakdown in modesty is due fundamentally to a disregard of the virtue of chastity as a necessary virtue for all, in all
    the circumstances of life.
    The only right approach, therefore, to modesty is through a
    reaffirmation and a re-emphasizing of the universal importance of
    chastity, not merely for the sake of preventing sex crimes and
    tragedies, but for the eternal and temporal happiness of every
    immortal soul.
    Hence, we would like to explain briefly three incontrovertible
    teachings of our holy Faith, which impose a corresponding threefold
    obligation upon us.
    a) Teaching of Our Faith
  3. The first teaching of our Faith is that the law of chastity is
    imposed on every human being. It binds him in public and in
    private, in marriage and outside of marriage, in youth and in old
    age. It is one of the serious laws that God has made, which means
    that it is one on which the salvation of our soul depends.
    It is quite obvious that this law of chastity forbids the evil deed
    and the evil word. St. Paul says: “Do you not know that neither
    fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor the effeminate, nor
    sodomites will possess the kingdom of God?” ( 1 Cor. 6:9-10.)
    And again: “But immorality and every uncleanness, let it not even
    be named among you” (Eph. 5:3).
    12
    However, it is most important to remember that the same law of
    chastity equally forbids the unchaste thought and the unchaste
    desire. The words of Christ in this regard are crystal clear: “I say
    to you that anyone who even looks with lust at a woman has already
    committed adultery with her in his heart” (Mt. 5 :28).
    Unchastity, therefore, in thought and desire, as well as in word
    and in deed, is a serious violation of God’s law, and a transgression
    of the right order of nature, established by God Himself. Unchastity
    is seriously wrong precisely and primarily because it transgresses the
    law of God. The evil effects of unchastity, remote or proximate,
    private or public, spectacular or ordinary, merely confirm that it is
    a serious violation of God’s law. Whether these evil effects follow
    or not, the important point is that unchastity is a serious violation
    of God’s law.
    Moreover, the external act, which seems to be the sole concern
    of the world, when it is concerned at all, is merely the fruit of the
    internal thought and desire. It is this internal thought and desire
    which is the source of the external act: “Out of the heart come
    evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, immorality, thefts, false witness,
    blasphemies” (Mt. 15: 19).
  4. The second teaching of our Faith which we ask you to recall
    here is the doctrine of original sin. Every human being, except the
    Immaculate Mother of God, has through original sin inherited a
    tainted nature, which manifests itself more intensively perhaps in
    inclinations to unchastity than in any other way. The resulting
    battle with concupiscence is not limited to a given age or state of
    life; it must be waged by all and at all times.
    It is fashionable to deny original sin. But to the Catholic, the
    doctrine of original sin is fundamental for the true understanding
    of the whole economy of grace and salvation. The denial of original
    sin ultimately leads to a denial of Christ and the purpose of His
    Incarnation and Redemption. The denial of original sin leads to a
    completely false appraisal of the meaning of life. Such a tragic denial,
    for example, underlies much of the theory of some progressive
    educators. And such a tragic denial is implicit in much of the
    ostrichlike approach to the very real connection between modesty
    and chastity, between unchaste thoughts and unchaste deeds, between
    the unchaste picture or book or dress or film and these unchaste
    thoughts, desires, and deeds.
    It is the teaching of our Faith that through original sin man’s
    nature has been wounded, although not totally corrupted. The wound
    in our nature is universally experienced through the struggle which
    13
    we have to control our imagination and our passions. Imagination
    by itself, we know, is Simply a picture-making power. It certamly
    is of real use to the intellect of man, but because of original sin it
    plays a part in the mind’s affairs totally out of proportion to its
    ments, and has passed far beyond the condition of a useful servant.
    Hence, to feed the imagination with all sorts of pictures which
    serve to excite the passions in man’s bodily nature is obviously
    against God’s plans and God’s will. Such pictures tend to make
    the passions rebel against the control of the intellect and will, and
    to draw the will itself away from conformity to God’s will. That is
    sin. Original sin and its consequences in our fallen nature impose
    upon us the obligation of keeping the imagmation in proper subordination to the intellect and the will.
  5. The third teachmg of our holy Faith is that this weakness
    of human nature, which is the result of original sin, can be met only
    by following the natural counsels of prudence and right reason, and
    by using the plentiful means of supernatural graces that have been
    provided for us by our Divine Savior. The world uses neither.
    Prudence tells us that we must reasonably avoid whatever tends
    to make the imaginauon rebellious to the intellect and will, and to
    draw both of these away from God. Prudence is a dictate of the
    natural law. Prudence sees the intimate and necessary connection
    between the thought and the deed, between the sensory impression
    of the imagination and the thought and desire. The prudence,
    therefore, which sees that the virtue of chastity is a desirable and
    necessary good, also sees that certain things must be avoided to
    assist the will in the pursuit of that good. The world does not use
    prudence in the matter of chastity, because, instead of avoiding, it
    provides a constant flow of incentives to lust, completely heedless
    of the intimate and necessary connection between modesty and
    chastity, and indeed often denying the sin of unchastity itself.
    Emphasizing the dictates of prudence, Christ requires that we
    also have recourse to both natural and supernatural means. How
    forceful are those warning words: “If thy hand or thy foot is an occasion of sin to thee, cut it off and cast it from thee! It is better for
    thee to enter life maimed or lame, than, having two hands or two
    feet, to be cast into the everlasting fire. And if thy eye is an occasion
    of sin to thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee! It is better to enter
    into life with one eve, than, having two eyes, to be cast into the hell
    of fire” (Mt. 18:8–9).
    The world does not heed this admonition of Christ because it
    denies the reality of the sin of scandal, and because it ignores or
    14
    despises !he supernatural means for preserving chastity, and the
    helps which come through the sacraments and prayer.
    b) Our Obligations
  6. These three incontrovertible facts of our holy Faith point to
    a threefold obligation on our part. First, to love chastity for itself
    as bi~ding on all of us in all the public and private relationships of
    our lives, as necessary for the salvation of our immortal souls. Second,
    to use prudence and common sense to protect it. Third, to use the
    sup~rnatural means of prayer and the sacraments to preserve chastity.
    Listen to these words of our Holy Father in this regard: “It is
    abundantly clear that with this warning [quoted above from Mt.
    18:8-9], our Divine Savior demands of us above all that we never
    consent to any sin, even internally, and that we steadfastly remove
    far from us anything that can even slightly tarnish the beautiful
    v~rtue of purity. In this matter no diligence, no severity can be considered exaggerated …. Flight and alert vigilance, by which we
    carefully avoid the occasions of sin, have always been considered
    by holy men and women as the most effective method of combat in
    this matter. ~o.day, however, it does not seem that everybody holds
    the same op1mon. . . . Moreover, to preserve chastity unstained
    neither vigilance nor modesty suffice. Those helps must also be
    used which entirely surpass the powers of nature, namely prayer to
    God, the Sacraments of Penance and Holy Eucharist, a fervent devotion to the most Holy Mother of God” (Encyclical Letter on Sacred
    Virginity, March 25, 1954).
    IV. THE VIRTUE OF MODESTY
  7. This brings us to a consideration of the virtue of modesty in
    the general scheme of virtues, and more especially as it relates to
    the virtue of chastity.
    The virtue of modesty, in general, may be described as that virtue
    which prompts us to be decorous, proper, and reserved, in the way
    we ~ress, sta~d, . walk, sit – in general in the way we behave
    exteriorly. This virtue of modesty bears a relation to other virtues
    besi~es that of chastity, especially to the virtue of humility. In a
    special manner, however, the virtue of modesty is particularly
    15
    regarded as tb guardian of chastity in thou~ht, word, and action.
    St. Thomas says that it is the virtue by which we nghtiy regulate
    our conduct in respect to those things that can lead to impure
    thoughts, desires, and actions, in ourselves and in others. He says
    that, while chastity deals with the regulation of difficult thin~s,
    powerful passions and strong desires for pleasure, modesty deals ~1th
    the regulation of easy things, the remote and proximate occasions
    and conditions that lead to unholy desires. Thus we see that modesty
    is a virtue allied to the virtue of temperance, or the general habit
    of self-restraint.
    It is this virtue of modesty, in its relation to chastity, which
    prompted the Holy Father to address himself to the Bishops of
    the world, through the Sacred Congregation of the Council, and to
    remind them that “it is altogether imperative to admonish and
    exhort, in whatever ways seem most apt, people of all stations, but
    particularly youth, to avoid the dangers of this kind of vice which
    is so directly opposed and potentially so hazardous to Christian
    and civic virtue. ‘How beautiful then is modesty and what a gem
    among virtues it is!’ Therefore, let it not be offended or violated
    by the easy allurements and attractions of vices which arise from
    that manner of dressing and from other actions what we have
    mentioned above and which decent people can but lament.” Again,
    in his encyclical letter on Holy Virginity, our Holy Father writes
    about modesty: “Educators of the young would render a more valuable and useful service, if they would inculcate in youthful minds
    the precepts of Christian modesty, which is so important for the
    preservation of perfect chastity, and which is truly called the
    prudence of chastity. For, modesty foresees threatening danger,
    forbids us to expose ourselves to risks, demands the avoidance of
    those occasions which the imprudent do not shun. It does not like
    impure or loose talk, it shrinks from the slightest immodesty, it
    carefully avoids suspect familiarity with persons of the other sex.
    … He who possesses the treasure of Christian modesty abominates
    every sin of impurity and instantly flees whenever he is tempted by
    its seductions.”
    Now, there are three areas of human life in which modesty particularly must exercise its influence on those who would be chaste
    and to help others preserve this virtue: in dress, in deportment, in
    the pnnted and pictured word. We would like to discuss these three
    points with you.
    16
    V. MODESTY AND CLOTHES
  8. The first of these areas is in regard to dress and clothing. It is
    this matter which was specifically treated in the letter of our Holy
    Father referred to immediately above. It is not our purpose in this
    letter to give you an essay on clothing. Clothing unquestionably
    serves other purposes besides modesty, especially protection and
    adornment: “Clothing in addition to its obvious utilitarian aspect,
    has a truly esthetic character, visibly and in a permanent way
    expressing the position of a person” (Pius XII, Address to Tailors,
    September 10, 1954).
    Nevertheless, our Holy Father deplores “the materialistic spint
    that inspires so great a part of today’s civilization, which has not
    spared the field of fashion …. Instead of ennobling the human
    person, clothing sometimes tends to degrade and debase it” (ibid.).
    Indeed, the Pope does not hesitate to write through the Prefect
    of the Sacred Congregation of the Council: “Yet as all can easily see,
    the current mode of dress among women and especially among girls
    constitutes a serious offense against decency, and ‘decency is the
    companion of modesty, in whose company chastity herself is safer.’
    Feminine adornment, if it can be called adornment, femmine
    clothing, if that can be called clothing which contains nothing to
    protect either the body or modesty, are at times of such a nature
    that seem to serve lewdness rather than modesty.”
    a) Two Principles
    ~- With regard to clothing, modesty requires especially two
    thmgs: first, care that one does not make chastity difficult for
    oneself, or for others, by one’s own mode of dress; and, second,
    a prudent but firm and courageous resistance to the styles and
    customs, no matter how popular or widespread, or adopted by
    others, which are a danger to chastity.
    In setting down these two general principles, there is no thought
    on our part to attempt to define details. In general, that form of
    dress may be said to be immodest which serves to arouse the lust of
    men, or which serves as a scandal, that is, a stumbling block, to the
    practice of virtue. With an honest respect for the innate sense of
    shame with which every human being is endowed, and with
    17
    ordinary knowledge of human nature tainted. by the 7
    ffects of
    original sin, one can wrth fair accuracy determme what is modest
    and what is nnmodest in given circumstances. Unquestionably,
    custom does help to establish some norms which can be safely
    followed up to a certain point. .
    It is here especially that our young people need to be guided
    by their elders, especially their mothers, and the mothers themselves
    need to remember that custom and style and fashion do not justify
    everything. Listen to these pointed words of the Holy Fath~r:
    “How many young girls there are who do not see any wrongdomg
    in following certain shameless styles like so many sheep. They
    certainly would blush if they could guess the impression they make
    and the feelmgs they evoke in those who see them” (July 17, 1954,
    Discourse to Children of Mary).
    Here, then, is also a call to parents to lead the way m en~ouraging
    their growing children not to make any compromise with immodest
    beach and summer wear, no matter how many thousands make use
    of such; with immodest evening gowns, though such may be seen
    m the most fashionable social gatherings; with immodest styles of
    dress that have been a feature of so much of the television entertainment almost from the beginning; with picture magazines that
    exploit nudity and suggestiveness in every issue; with dangerous
    associations, readings, shows.
    As our Holy Father exclaimed in the same context of the discourse quoted above: “How lax have consciences become, how
    pagan morals!”
  9. We wish to repeat again: there is no thought on our part to
    attempt to define details. But we do hold that there are standards
    of modesty which are also objective, simply because of the fact of
    original sin. The very fact of the freer relationships which are
    tolerated in our environments, far from excusing submission to the
    pagan styles of the day, merely emphasizes the greater obligation that
    Christians and Catholics have to resist these pagan and materialistic
    trends. It simply is not true to human nature, tainted by origmal
    sin, to say as some do: “that one can become used to anythmg m
    matters of dress”; or, to say, “to the pure all things are pure.”
    Remember that our Lord condemned not only the act of adultery,
    but everything that leads to it. It is a fact of human nature that
    undue exposure and emphasis act as stimuli to evil thoughts and
    desires. The cult of nudism is promoted today in varying degrees.
    It is to be found not merely in the extreme form of those few who
    defend the belief that both sexes should hve together m the state
    18
    of complete nudity. Such an aberration is indeed an omi~1o~s sign
    of corruption of our public morals and manners. More significant,
    possibly is the constant partial exposure, and emphasis on such
    exposure, promoted and tolerated by dress, by picture, by the
    printed story, and the leering cartoon. Nourished by the sights of
    such exposure, the passions of fallen mar. constantly grow stronger.
    This is the teaching of all experience. ‘1 hough it may be true, in
    some instances, that external sins do not follow as readily as formerly
    because of the familiarity of the sight, still it cannot be denied that
    evil desires are fostered and even solicited by such exposure, or such
    emphasis in picture and print, which evil desires easily lead to
    external deeds of impurity. Again, we must emphasize in the
    strongest possible language that it is Catholic teaching, based on
    the most clear words of Christ Himself, that impure thoughts and
    desires freely indulged are senous sms. To mvite such impure
    thoughts and desires through dress, action, or the printed and pictured story cannot help but participate of the grave sin of scandal
    and co-operation.
    Hence, the grave sinfulness of certain features of beauty contests,
    particularly those which emphasize the undue exposure of the body,
    as the great majority of these contests do. It is encouragmg to note
    that such emphasis is condemned in these words of a prominent
    columnist: “This new and current obsession with a girl’s measurements, put into a news story, seems to me to be vulgar, even
    degenerate and a mark of a decaymg civilization” ( George Sokolsky,
    The Milwaukee Sentinel, April 14, 1956). For the Catholic, we add
    the most important consideration: it is not only vulgar, or degenerate, it is sinful.
    In this connection, it seems possible to apply a principle which
    our Holy Father stated about books: “You should be persuaded that
    there are bad books – books which are bad for everyone, like those
    poisons against which no one can claim immunity.” Thus, also, it
    seems to us we can say: there are certain modes of dress in vogue
    today, notably in summer time, or in beauty contests, or other
    similar exhibitions, which are a source of temptation to every
    normal person, who is a child of Adam, and against which no one
    can claim immunity.
    b) Higher Christian Standards
  10. Here, we would like to go a step further, and also assert that
    there are standards of modesty in dress, which are rooted in our
    19
    traditional Christian cultural values, centering in the Blessed Mother
    of God. These are standards which view the whole problem not
    merely from the standpoint of what is actually sinful or leading to
    sin, but from the positive standpoint of what is truly helpful in
    assisting fallen man to observe the difficult virtue.
    Hence, as Catholics, we have a tradition to preserve which looks
    at the whole problem from the higher vantage point of virtue. On
    the basis of this consideration, we appeal to our Catholic people
    to maintain a firm and courageous resistance to pagan standards of
    naturalism in this matter. This does not mean a one-sided or wrong
    emphasis on a problem which admittedly extends to areas of greater
    sigmficance than dress. Neither does it mean that we Catholics
    must retire from the world, or adopt a purely negative attitude
    of condemnation.
    Our Holy Father met the difficulty head-on when he spoke to a
    group of master tailors. He pointed out to them the truth of history
    and of human nature that “it is altogether normal for man to try
    to enrich through the exterior brilliance of his clothes the extraordinary occurrences of life, and through them to show his feelings of
    joy, pride, or even grief.” Nevertheless, he insisted that we must
    “instead of following the materialistic current which is leading so
    many people astray today, deliberately put ourselves at the service of
    spiritual ends.”
    Here, then, we have a program which is positive, and which best
    defines the traditional ideals of the virtue of Christian modesty with
    regard to clothes. Those clothes are truly modest in the Christian
    tradition which serve spiritual ends. Clothing should have the
    purpose and effect of “elevating and ennobling the human person.”
    Speaking again to the tailors and to all those who participate in this
    kind of work, the Pope exhorted them: “As the maternal hands of
    the Blessed Virgin busied themselves to make Christ’s clothes, so
    it is God Whom you continue to clothe in the men of today.”
    c) Organized Efforts
  11. It is our wish, therefore, through this letter to give encouragement to the efforts which various organizations, both here and elsewhere, are making to promote these traditional ideals of Christian
    modesty in the matter of dress. We do not believe that these
    organizations are creating oversensitiveness and confused consciences
    with regard to chastity, nor are they overemphasizing one aspect of
    20
    virtue at the expense of others. We recognize that their zeal may at
    times lead them to some undue excess in the promotion of their
    cause, and we caution against such excess, urging them to be guided
    by the norms set forth in statements of the Holy Father and of
    their Bishops.
    We wish, nevertheless, to give every encouragement to such
    organized efforts, because it is only through such united efforts
    that most individuals can achieve the moral courage not to succumb
    to the tyranny of custom. Listen to these clear words of Pope
    Pius XII on this point: “In your association, you will find not only
    light but strength. . . . You must give yourselves wholeheartedly
    and conquer human respect. A group of girls who have reflected
    and prayed together will fearlessly accept a clear-cut attitude which
    one girl by herself would hardly dare to adopt.” Such united effort
    is necessary, the Holy Father further stated, because “you live in a
    world which is constantly forgetful of God and the supernatural,
    where the only interest of the crowd seems to be the satisfaction
    of temporal needs, well-being, pleasure, vanity” (July 17, 1954).
    Therefore, we do not look upon such organizations as pressure
    groups to impose upon others a moral code which these others
    do not wish to accept. We look upon them as associations of our
    own, who are determined through united action to be willing
    courageously to set an example in defense of traditional standards –
    who are willing to be different, as the early Christians were different
    when they challenged the moral standards of the pagan world of
    Greece and Rome; who are unwilling to sit idly by while the evil
    spirit of immodesty goes about brazenly seeking whom he may
    devour. We look upon them as particularly needed forms of
    Catholic Action, to exemplify to the world the teaching of St. Paul:
    “Do you not know that your members are the temple of the Holy
    Spirit, who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are
    not your own? For you have been bought with a great price. Glorify
    God and bear him in your body” (1 Cor. 6:19-20).
  12. In this wise, we will carry out the injunction of our Holy
    Father “not to leave a stone unturned which can help remedy the
    situation.” “Let those,” he continues, “who serve in the ranks of
    Catholic Action take up the promotion of this wholesome enterprise
    as a principal duty. First, let them take care that everyone with
    whom they come into contact, whether close associates or not,
    can see in their manner of dress and action the shining beauty of
    Christian morals. Let their innocence of soul shine forth from their
    eyes. Let their words and deeds savor of virtue. For only then can
    21
    they easily move others by their persuasion and counsel to decent
    and proper d-essing and a good life” ( August 15, 1954).
    In seconding these words of the Holy Father, we earnestly remind
    parents of young and growing children that boys and girls must
    be taught as tiny tots to love modesty and must be corrected for
    immodesty. Even though they are too young to sin, they can and
    ought to be impressed with the beauty of modesty. Training in
    modesty is pre-eminently the function of the home, to be begun
    from earliest childhood.
    d) Sacred Places and Functions
  13. J n this matter of dress, we would like finally to call your
    attention to the even higher standards of modesty required by the
    added consideration of the respect due to sacred places and sacred
    occasions. Our Holy Father mentions that “indeed, often even in
    buildings dedicated to God, an unworthy and indecent mode of dress
    has prevailed.”
    In this letter, we do not propose to lay down precise regulations,
    which it would be our right to do where matters regulating the
    House of God and Liturgical functions are concerned. In general,
    we are confident that our good people are fully conscious of these
    higher standards befitting the House of God. We appeal to them,
    therefore, to observe carefully that sense of propriety which is in
    keeping with the inspired words: “Holiness befits your house, 0
    Lord, for length of days” ( Ps. 92: 5) .
  14. Nevertheless, we feel constrained to call special attention to
    the decorum required in the House of God on the occasion of
    weddings, and we call upon our pastors to be insistent on preserving
    that decorum. Our attention has been called from time to time to
    the fact that some bridal parties come to the Church attired in gowns
    which perhaps do not even satisfy the requirements of modesty,
    much less that decorum which befits a sacred place, and a sacred
    occasion such as the holy Sacrament of Matrimony. We cannot but
    deplore such a lack of the reverence due to the Church of God,
    and we wish to insist in earnest language that the dress of the
    bridal party be in all ways befitting the sacred place and the
    sacred occasion.
    In this connection we may also mention other solemn occasions
    such as First Holy Communion and Confirmation. Generally, there
    is no difficulty on the former occasion, since traditional standards
    22
    of dress are being maintained. Occasionally, however, it is a source
    of great embarrassment to notice how an innocent child has been
    allowed to present herself for confirmation in a style of dress not
    befitting the sacred occasion.
    These same general principles are easily applied to less formal
    occasions, and to the simple attendance at Church services. From
    time to time, we receive letters from people asking us whether we
    cannot do something to impress people with the importance of
    observing a special etiquette in this matter. We can only put it up
    to the people themselves, reminding them that there is a decorum
    befitting the Church of God, which is entirely compatible with
    simple and even poor clothes, and with the ordinary requirements
    of ease and comfort, even though the Church may not be airconditioned.
    VI. MODESTY AND BEHAVIOR
  15. The second general area in which modesty particularly must
    exercise its influence on those who would be chaste and help others
    to preserve chastity is in regard to behavior with others.
    a) Good Manners
  16. Modesty is something more than good manners, but it is
    important first of all to stress the usefulness and necessity of good
    manners and the rules of politeness. These can and should serve
    as the natural basis for modesty of behavior. Good manners and
    the rules of politeness are fundamentally natural virtues. They are
    a partial recogrntion of our social obligations in our dealings with
    our fellow men, and also an exemplification of the golden rule. To
    tolerate or to neglect the correction of bad manners and impoliteness, particularly among the young, is to invite a disregard also of
    virtuous habits. For, grace builds upon nature, and presupposes
    nature. Good manners, and the rules of politeness, are intimately
    related to the Christian virtues of obedience, modesty, and charity,
    which ennoble and elevate the natural, and, where necessary, also
    correct it. Hence, good manners, important as they are, are in
    themselves not enough. In fact, when not elevated and directed
    by Christian virtue, good manners can merely serve as the cloak
    for hiding evil intentions.
    23
    b) Occasions of Sin
  17. It is an old saying that people do not plunge into impu~ty
    without first having cast modesty aside. Now modesty of behavior
    with others is intimately bound up with the question of the
    occasions of sin. Our catechism teaches us that we are seriously
    bound to avoid what is called the near or proximate occasion of
    sin unless there is a proportionately serious reason for exposing ourselves to such an occasion. When such a serious reason does exist,
    we are nevertheless bound to use all the natural and supernatural
    means needed to help us not to fall into sin. The near or
    proximate occasions of sin are, in general, all persons, places, ?r
    things that may easily lead us into sin. Hence, an occas:on of s1′?
    is called near or proximate when the person, place, or thing constitutes either in general a great danger of sin, or is such for some
    particular person because of his individual disposition ‘. Such a near
    or proximate occasion of sin may be a free one, that is, one freely
    chosen by us without there being any neces~ity; or, it ~a~ be a ~ecessary one, because of certain grave reasons, i.e., when 1~ is physically
    or morally impossible to avoid it without danger ~o life, health,. or
    reputation. Experience teaches us that there are various intermediary
    stages between the near and the remote occasions of sin. The greater
    the danger of sinning, the more serious must be the reasons to
    justify one in not avoiding the occasion of sin.
    Whoever does not want to avoid a near or proximate free occasion
    of sin, i.e., an occasion which is not justified by any serious reason,
    is not disposed to receive absolution in the sacrament of Penance.
    Again, one who finds himself in the near occasion of sin because of
    some necessity as mentioned above, but refuses to use the natural
    precautions of prudence and the supernatural means of grace, commits sin by that very fact.
    c) Company-Keeping
  18. These principles on the occasion of sin may be briefly considered in their application to the important question of “companykeeping.” We call it an important question, because there are many
    loose and false ideas on this subject, many of them proposed by way
    of advice to the teen-ager, the couple contemplating marriage, or
    24
    the person separated from a lawful spouse. In applying these principles, we do not wish to enter upon details, but merely to set forth
    some well-defined conclusions.
    WHAT IT Is
    First of all, we would hke to make clear what we understand
    here by “company-keeping.” We refer here to the “regular and
    frequent compamonship of man and woman which in the normal
    course of events leads to falling in love and wanting to marry.” In
    this description, the key words are “regular” and “frequent.” By
    the former, we mean to imply the kind of company-keeping which
    is based upon either a mutual understanding or an explicit planning
    to devote the time spent together to each other and morally to
    exclude others; generally, such company-keeping is referred to in
    popular language as “going steady.” The word, “frequent,” may
    vary from almost nightly to weekly, either personally or by letters.
    Now, company-keeping in this sense is looked upon by all moral
    theologians in the Church as a near or proximate occasion of sin.
    It should be noted that we have not said that it is looked upon as
    smful, but only as the occasion of sm. It is so looked upon as an
    occasion of sin simply because of the facts of experience based upon
    human nature in its fallen condition. Because it is a near or proximate
    occasion of sin, this kind of company-keeping can be justified only
    when certain circumstances are present. These circumstances are:
    ( l) if the parties involved are keeping company with a possible view
    to mamage within a reasonable time; ( 2) if they use the means necessary to prevent undue familiarities, namely the natural means of
    prudence, and the supernatural means of prayer and the sacraments.
    The possible view to marriage can be based only on the desire
    to marry and the freedom in the eyes of the Church to marry.
    If either of these conditions is not present, company-keeping as
    descnbed cannot be justified morally.
    1) Company-Keeping and the Teen-Ager
  19. These principles need to be carefully weighed, first of all, in
    the guidance given to the teen-ager, and must be conscientiously
    realized by the Catholic teen-agers themselves. It is well known
    that teen-agers often “go steady” simply because it is convenient,
    or because it is a matter of pride, to have a steady partner to the
    exclusion of others. In keeping this kind of “steady company” they
    25
    have no intention or desire of looking toward marriage. Again, even
    though such a desire or intention may be present, teen-agers often
    cannot contemplate marriage within a reasonable time, for a vanety
    of reasons, such as lack of the necessary parental consent, economic
    conditions, and the like.
    Hence, despite the views of so many who look with indulgence
    on this practice, we cannot condone it, and we must raise our voices
    against it, to let both parents and teen-agers know what we think
    about it, and what is the approved teaching of moral theologians of
    the Church. This kind of steady company-keeping on the part of
    teen-agers is the source of neglect of schoolwork, and of the serious
    preparation for life that schoolwork implies. More than this, however, it carries with it the grave dangers of sins against modesty,
    chastity, and purity, and ultimately also of attempted mamages
    contrary to the laws of the Church. As a free near occasion of sin,
    which is not justified by other circumstances, the practice of such
    company-keeping in itself must be classified as sinful.
    We wish, therefore, seriously to exhort parents to instruct their
    children more fully in these matters, to urge them to be interested
    in group activities, and to exercise prudent supervision over the
    conduct of their growmg children. We are not unmindful of the
    grave burdens which the responsibilities of parenthood place upon
    fathers and mothers. Such responsibilities can be met with the help
    of God’s grace, Who will assist parents to be kind and understanding, to be generous and loving, and yet at the same time to be
    prudent and firm in the direction which they give to the lives of their
    growing youngsters. In the words of our Holy Father: Let “fathers
    and mothers of families remove their children from these dangers,
    first by their own example, then also by timely admonitions which
    come from a stem firmness of spiiit as befits Christians” (August
    15, 1954).
  20. For the teen-agers themselves, we wish to remind them of the
    obligations placed upon them by the fourth commandment. The
    law of obedience binds children as long as they are minors and
    unmarried. Disobedience is a grievous sin if it concerns an important
    matter and the parents have given a real command. Even adult
    children, as long as they stay at home, must obey in all things
    necessary for domestic order, e.g., to return home at a reasonable
    hour of the night.
    O_bedien~e to t?e law of G?d, of co~rse, ~ust be . the supreme
    motive. It is obedience to God s law which obliges us m conscience
    to avoid the free near occasions of sin, and to take the proper pre26
    cautions in the necessary near occasions of sin. “He who loves danger
    will pens~ in it” is the inspired word of the Wise Man (Ecclus.
    3:27); while the Apostle St. John wntes: “Do not love the world
    or the things that are in the world. If anyone loves the world, th;
    love of the Father is not in him; because all that is m the world is
    the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of hfe:
    which is not from the Father, but from the world” (1 Jn. 2:15-16)’.
    No o~e, surely, wishes to deprive our young people of the legitimate diversion and recreation which come from association with
    other~. Ne~erthel.ess, i_t must be pointed out that there are many
    ways m which this legitimate diversion can be had without recourse
    to company-keeping as described above. It should also be noted that
    aside from the kind of company-keeping described above, there is
    also such a thing as immodesty of place and circumstance. Suffice
    it to mention the out-of-the-way parked car, or the intimacies which
    so many in the world look upon with indulgence and condone in
    the name of experience or of growing up. Modesty of behavior with
    others must govern all so-called expressions of affection. The kissing
    and embracing which so many defend under the name of affection
    or simply because it is the accepted thing, are in reality but a surrender to immodesty that destroys the last defense of chastity in
    the world. Thus also the type of dancing indulged in by some lovers
    is but an invitation to the spint of impurity to take possession
    of their souls.
    In defense, therefore, of Christian virtue, and in the discharge of
    our pastoral duty to our people, both young and old we must
    state in certain and clear terms the teaching of the catechism which
    in~ists: “W_e must avoid as far as possible any person, place, or
    thm? that is hkely to tempt us to immodesty and impurity, and
    special care must be taken to avoid the near occasions of sin.” Let
    us always recall the exhortation of St. Paul: “I exhort you therefore,
    brethren, by the mercy of God, to present your bodies as a sacrifice
    living, holy, pleasing to God-your spintual service” (Rom. 12:1)’.
    2) Company-Keeping and Divorced Persons
  21. These principles need to be carefully weighed, in the second
    pl~ce, ~n connection with the question of company-keeping by or
    with divorced persons. Smee the prospect of a future valid marriage
    alone makes company-keeping, as described above, licit, it follows
    that such company-keeping is illicit and sinful when marriage is
    not possible either permanently, or for a long time, or probably
    27
    impossible. A penitent who persists in such kind of company-keeping
    is not properly disposed to receive absolution.
    It should be recalled here that all marriages are presumed to be
    valid until proved invalid by due process of Church law. Only
    Catholics and those marrying Catholics are bound to be married
    before a priest. Non-Catholics marrying non-Catholics before a civil
    official or minister contract valid marriages unless there is present
    an invalidating impediment. Divorced persons are still married in
    the eyes of God and must regulate their conduct with others
    accordingly. There are indeed marriages which are invalid from the
    beginning. The clearest of such cases are those which involve Catholics who have attempted marriage before a civil official or a minister.
    Nevertheless, the possibility of eventual freedom of a divorced
    person, based on a founded hope or not, does not change the nature
    of the voluntary proximate occasion of sin. Only the due process
    of Church Law can state definitely whether or not a given marriage
    was invalid from the beginning. No individual may use a private
    opinion, either his own or that of another, in this matter, as the
    basis for excusing company-keeping with such divorced persons.
    Company-keeping with or by divorced persons shows a public
    disregard of God’s law and the sacredness of the marriage vows.
    It is an invitation to others to act in like manner, and an encouragement to those already acting in this manner. Company-keeping with
    or by divorced persons carries with it all the dangers referred to
    above – the danger of committing sins against the sixth and ninth
    commandments, the danger of attempting a merely civil marriage
    with a consequent life of public sin, and of dying in this state. In
    fact, pastoral experience abundantly proves that it is the failure to
    apply these principles on company-keeping which more than anything else leads to so many invalid marriages involving divorced
    persons.
    Again, as we stated above, we would like to repeat here that these
    principles are based upon the law of Cod, and are bound up with
    the commandments of God and the doctrine of original sin. The
    doctrine of the morality involved in an occasion of sin is simply
    the logical conclusion which flows from the application of these
    principles to areas of practical living. It is obedience to God’s law,
    therefore, which obliges us in conscience to avoid the free near
    occasion of sin, and to take the proper precautions in the necessary
    near occasions of sin.
    It may be noted here in passing that it is also wrong to encourage
    or to abet such company-keeping by others. Even more so, it is
    28
    wrong to give encouragement or approval to any marriage attempted
    invalidly by or with a divorced person. Such encouragement and at
    least tacit approval is given by those who attend such weddings, or
    offer gifts on such an occasion, or otherwise through their words
    or actions seemingly approve of the sinful action.
    We fully realize the demands of Christian charity. Charity is
    the supreme law and criterion, but charity begins with the love of
    God. Love of God is expressed above all in the keeping of the commandments: “If you love me, keep my commandments” (Jn. 14:15).
    Again: “He who says that he knows him, and does not keep his
    commandments, is a liar and the truth is not in him” ( 1 Jn. 2:4).
    True love of neighbor can never give approval, therefore, of our
    neighbor’s sin, since love of neighbor is based upon love of God.
    Moreover, true love of neighbor considers especially the spiritual
    welfare of our neighbor. It is not true love of neighbor, therefore,
    which either explicitly or implicitly conveys to him the impression
    that we approve of his sinful action. It is also true that we should
    not judge lest we ourselves be judged (cf. Mt. 7: 1). It is not however
    an act of rash or hypocritical judgment of the actions of others to
    recognize the clearly sinful character of such actions. The subjective
    imputability of an action we must always leave to the judgment of
    God, Who alone can read the consciences of men. But over and
    above such subjective imputability, the actions of men have an
    objective morality according as they are, or are not, in conformity
    with the law of God. We not only have a right, but a duty to
    recognize this fact, and to regulate our own conduct accordingly. It
    is necessary that we state these principles in clear and precise terms,
    so that the proper application may be made to individual cases.
    d) The Church and Pleasure
  22. Nothing, therefore, of what we have said in the above, should
    be construed to conclude that pleasure in itself is wrong. It is not.
    Neither, therefore, that pleasure which is derived from association
    with others. Quite the contrary, our love of neighbor is an essential
    part of the great commandment (cf. Mt. 22:37-39), and the proof
    of the true follower of Christ (cf. Jn. 13:35). The notion that
    pleasure in itself is wrong is heretical in origin, and most harmful
    to the spiritual life of man. God made pleasure; man made pain.
    All pleasure that is not inordinate, no matter how intense it is, can
    be offered to God. It is only when pleasure becomes inordinate,
    29
    that is, contrary to the will of God, that it is wrong. No one can
    live without some pleasure, just as no one can live without some
    food and some rest.
    Hence, the Church does not make the mistake of condemning
    pleasure as evil. In fact, during the long course of her history the
    Church has been frequently accused of both extremes of laxity and
    of rigorism. The Church teaches that man is not evil or totally corrupted, even though he has within himself the effects of original
    sin. Nevertheless, the Church teaches that the passions of man
    need to be held in check by man’s spiritual nature, that his free
    will be guided by reason, and reason and conscience be guided by
    revelation. Hence, in her teaching about the obligation of avoiding
    the near free occasion of sin, the Church is merely insisting on
    the minimum mortification needed in order to avoid mortal sin.
    We fully realize that the viewpoint of many in the world runs
    counter to what we have been saying. The spirit of secularism, and
    of a militant paganism, resents the law of God for interfering
    with the full expression of human freedom. Even more so the
    spirit of secularism resents and rejects the guiding hand of authority
    which is evident in the obedience to the law of the Church required
    of every Catholic. Nevertheless, we speak out, because the heart of
    a shepherd is deeply moved by the sight of so many who are led
    astray by the viewpoint of secularism in these important matters.
    VII. MonESTY AND THE PRINTED WoRD
  23. The third general area in which modesty must particularly
    exercise its influence on those who would be chaste and help others
    to preserve this virtue is that of the printed and pictured word.
    Whether we are conscious of it or not, we are influenced by the
    books, magazines, and papers which we read, and all of these leave
    their imprint on us as individuals. Back in the eighteenth century,
    Samuel Johnson expressed the same idea when he said: “Books have
    alw~ys a se_cret influence on the understanding; we cannot at pleasure
    obhte~ate ideas; ~e that _reads books of science, though without any
    fixed idea or desire of improvement, will grow more knowing; he
    that ent:rtains himself w_ith religious treatises will imperceptibly
    advance m goodness; the ideas which are offered to the mind will
    at last find a lucky moment when it is disposed to receive them.”
    Add to these observations the truth about our imagination already
    30
    referred to earlier in this letter. Our imagination is the power which
    we have of making mental pictures of the material umverse. The
    imagination can reproduce whatever our senses have experienced,
    either as these sense experiences came originally through the senses,
    or in any variety of combmations. The imagination cannot make
    pictures of what the senses cannot experience. Obviously, then,
    the picture-making power of the imagination is in direct proportion
    to the stimulation of the senses. Now, as a result of original sin,
    the imagination of man constantly tends to get out of hand. It is
    a commonplace of experience how the imagination can storm the
    will by conjuring up pictures to solicit and entice; and it is likewise
    commonplace to experience the interference of the imagination in
    the process of thinking by way of distraction, or by censoring or
    substituting for whatever the intellect is to accept.
    All these observations are true of adults, and even more so of
    children and young people, who have, as we say, impressionable
    minds. And these observations need to be kept in mind in applying
    the general principles discussed m this pastoral letter on decency
    applied to the printed and the pictured word.
  24. Again, we wish to point out that it is not our purpose to
    attempt to detail every possible application of these principles to
    the printed and pictured word. Thus, for example, there would
    be much that should be said with regard to this problem as it is
    involved in the ethics of advertising. Limiting ourselves to the
    problem of decency and modesty in the printed and pictured word,
    whatever is said about books and magazines in this regard can
    readily be applied to the field of advertising.
    a) The Problem of Indecent Literature
  25. “Literature mirrors the times.” No better proof of the urgency
    to return to the living of God’s law is provided than by a visit to
    the local newsstands. We do not expect a sinless literature in a
    sinful world. Evil is not something new in the world. This is a
    smful world, and the readmg habits of people will all too frequently
    reflect this sad condition. But we have a right, and a duty, to call
    sin by its proper name, and to recognize it for what it is. Adultery
    is not romance, business cheatmg is not success. Love is more than
    sex, and religion more than a funny feelmg. Civilization and culture
    are based on the dignity of man and his living, and not on the
    sordid elements of life.
    31
    Now, the moral and mental attack made by much of the current
    literature is well calculated to promote the advance of irreligion
    and atheism, and thus also foster communism. This literature is a
    contributing factor to types of crimes progressively troubling our
    lawmakers and the great body of our people. Under the guise of art,
    or romance, or travel, or science a vast output of books, booklets,
    magazines, and comics continues to stream forth from the printing
    presses of our nation, to become, in the words of an objective
    governmental survey, “the media for dissemination of artful appeals
    to sensuality, immorality, filth, perversion and degeneracy.” In fact,
    according to this same report, “so great is the exaltation of passion
    above principle, and so prevalent is the identification of lust with
    love that the casual reader of such literature might easily conclude
    that all married persons are habitually adulterous and all teenagers completely devoid of any sex inhibitions” (U. S. Cong. Committee, Union Calendar, No. 797, House Report No. 2510, p. 3).
    Thus are our national morals sabotaged and our nation’s moral tone
    brought lower and lower.
    As we have stated above several times, we wish to repeat here
    again. In the Sermon on the Mount, our Divine Savior condenms
    not only adultery, but everything that leads to it – all impure looks,
    desires, thoughts and actions. “Anyone who even looks with lust
    at a woman has already committed adultery with her in his heart”
    (Mt. 5:27-28). In the light of these clear words, there can be no
    misunderstanding about the gravely sinful nature of reading material,
    or movie and television fare, which pander to such lustful thoughts,
    desires, and looks. This means, therefore, that generally speaking
    such material is sinful for all, and not merely for the young. “We
    would warn you that there are books which are bad for everyone”
    (Pius XII).
    b) Scandal and Co-operation
  26. On another occasion, when our Lord had dramatically placed
    a small child before the Apostles, He solemnly said: “Whoever
    causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it were
    better for him to have a great millstone hung around his neck, and
    to be drowned in the depths of the sea. Woe to the world because
    of scandals! For it must needs be that scandals come, but woe to
    the man through whom scandal does cornet” (Mt. 18:6-7.)
    Scandal is any word, act, or omission that is in itself evil or has
    32
    the appearance of evil and which can be the occasion of another’s
    sin. Closely allied to the sin of scandal is the sin of co-operation,
    by which one concurs in the sinful deed of another. Such co-operation
    can take place either by concurring in the evil intention of the one
    committing sin, and then it is called formal co-operation; or it can
    take place by concurring only in the sinful act, without agreeing
    with the evil intention, and then it is called material co-operation.
    There are many different ways in which one can co-operate with
    the sin of another. Whether or not we are allowed to co-operate in
    the sinful act of another ( material co-operation), without of course
    making his evil intention our own, will depend on different circumstances, and especially on the measure of our co-operation. There
    are some things which from their very nature can have only an
    evil use. When such is the caae, no matter what our intention may
    be, we cannot co-operate with another, even under grave moral
    pressure, precisely because it is impossible to dissociate ourselves
    from the evil nature of the thing or the act.
    Thus, material co-operation in the dissemination of some books
    and magazines is permissible only for a grave reason. But professedly
    immoral literature cannot be disseminated at all without committing grave sin. This is the clear teaching of our Faith, enforced
    by the Canon Law of the Church, which states that “booksellers
    shall not sell, lend, or retain books designedly treating of obscenities”
    ( Canon 1404).
    c) The “Designedly Obscene”
  27. That much of the stuff which is being peddled through pocketsize books, the magazines, and comics is “designedly obscene” can
    hardly be denied. This conclusion is true, despite the difficulties
    which the courts may have in arriving at a satisfactory definition
    of the word “obscene.” The teaching of both experience and competent theologians makes it abundantly clear that the “designedly
    obscene” would probably include a great deal more than our legislative statutes and our courts would or could include. Moreover, it
    is also evident from experience and the teaching of moral theology
    that even though much of this material might not qualify as
    “designedly obscene” in the strictly legal or canonical sense, it does
    serve as the proximate occasion of grave sin for the greater majority
    of people, both adults and young. In other words, no Catholic
    publisher, or distributor, or reader could guide himself in this ques33
    tion of scandal, or co-operation, or sin, on the basis of what a legal
    statute or a court decision may state is the meaning of the word
    “obscene.”
    d) The Current Situation
  28. There are some hopeful signs that the comic book mdustry
    has initiated a movement to regulate itself. How sincere this effort
    is or how effective it will be can only be judged after it has been
    in operation for several years. While comic books have been and
    continue to be detrimental to the welfare of our children, it does
    not seem to us that they have been the principal source of the harm
    being done, although certain types of publicity ( especially that
    promoted by the publishers of other kinds of literature) have tned
    to make it seem so.
    The magazines, in recent years, it seems to us, have become worse
    rather than better. The reason is to be found in the doleful fact
    that “pornography is big business.” The pressure of other types of
    publications, particularly the pocket-size books, has induced many
    magazines to lower their standards in order to meet “competition.”
    Even the best family magazines run occasional articles along these
    lines. Also, it is to be noted that some court decisions have opened
    the way to the adoption of these lower standards, by granting the
    use of the mails to magazines containing the pictures of untouched
    nudes. Thus the sensational type of picture or photography magazine
    has been economically pressured to become even more sensational
    in their photography and display. Added to these magazines is
    another type which specializes in gossip, slander, and the revelation
    of the secret facts of people’s lives, thus adding calumny and
    slander to the degrading list.
    The worst offenders continue to be the pocket-size books. This
    situation is at once the most difficult and the most pernicious. It is
    the most difficult because of the constant flux and quick turnover
    in the market, and because of the deceptive appearances of the
    covers. Sometimes, some of the finest classics bear very salacious
    frontpieces – a trick of advertising also noticeable in the film industry. It is the most pernicious, because the content of the bad
    pocket-size books continues to be very bad, and their number does
    not seem to diminish. It is the most pernicious, because this type
    of book is being sought out not only by our young people but by
    adults as well.
    34
    e) Our Challenge
  29. In striving to do something about this grave menace to the
    morals of our nation, it is important to begin with a recognition of
    the fact that there is a serious problem, and that we cannot remain
    silent or inert in the face of this problem, and thus by our silence
    to condone or to approve the evil.
    For some time now, our Christian Mothers’ Confraternity, together
    with other organizations in the Archdiocese, have engaged themselves
    to cope with this problem m one way or another. We are grateful
    for what has been accomplished in the past, and we wish to
    encourage them in their united efforts for the present and the
    future. From reports which reach us from time to time, we are
    convinced that it is necessary through these organizations to continue to bring this matter again and again to our people as a whole.
    For this reason, we wish to encourage our Christian Mothers in
    their particular apostolate, asking them to continue their co-operation
    with the National Organization for Decent Literature (NODL)
    and to bring the principles, classifications, and applications of the
    NODL work to other organizations in the Archdiocese, to parish
    societies, and to families and individuals as well.
    For this reason, also, we encouraged the establishment of an
    Archdiocesan unit of the Legion of Decency. The principal aim of
    the Legion of Decency, which was set up by the American Bishops
    in 1934, is to discourage the production and patronizing of films
    which are “not worthy of the rational nature of man” and “which
    are not morally healthy.” For this reason the Legion criticizes and
    classifies entertainment solely and exclusively from the viewpoint
    of Christian morality and decency. It is a fact that too many of our
    Catholics are frequenting motion pictures without being sufficiently
    informed as to the religious and moral quality of the film being
    shown. Some even do not seem to have any consciousness of their
    duty in this matter, particularly in protecting the young.
    The classifications of the Legion of Decency, as those also of the
    NODL, represent a practical application of the norms of moral
    theology, especially those dealing with the occasion of sin, the sin
    of co-operation, and the sin of scandal. These classifications enable
    the individual person to determine readily, promptly, and easily
    whether or not a certain film involves an occasion of sin, or the sin
    35
    of scandal or co-operation. In speaking of the right of the Church,
    through the Pope and the Bishops, to guide the faithful, our Holy
    Father, Pope Pius XII, calls that theory “reprehensible” which
    denies the Church the right to make such practical applications in
    the realm of moral conduct (November 2, 1954).
    We take this occasion, therefore, when speaking of the program
    of the Christian Mothers in the field of indecent literature, to
    encourage them and all our people to continue their co-operation
    with the Pledge of the Legion of Decency in the related fields of
    the movies and television entertainment. We remind them that our
    late Holy Father, Pope Pius XI, warmly praised the Pledge, and
    called upon all pastors of souls “to obtain each year from their
    people a pledge similar to this one, in which they promise to stay
    away from motion pictures which are offensive to truth and Christian
    morality” (Vigifanti Cura, June 29, 1936). We also call to the
    attention of our people, and particularly of our various Study and
    Group Discussion Clubs the complete address of Pope Pius XII
    on “The Ideal Film” (June 21, 1955, and October 28, 1955),
    and we ask them to make a study of this significant discourse.
    Hence, in presenting the challenge of Decency to our people,
    we do so in the realization that decency in all walks of life is most
    intimately bound up with the spirit of reverence, which has frequently been called the soul of religion. This reverence is a consciousness of the infinite holiness of God, which serves to make us
    remember our dignity as children of God, and temples of the Holy
    Ghost through divine grace, which is a participation in the holiness
    of God. We do not look upon our efforts, whether individually or
    through organizations, as “pressure movements” or as “censorship
    imposing our way of life on others, who disagree with us.” Rather,
    we look upon our efforts as the articulate voices of our people, of
    all good people, who band together for the strength that comes
    from union, and who stand up in defense of the holiness of God, and
    the standards of Christian morality.
    f) Recommendations
    With regard to the problem of Indecent Literature under discussion in this point of our pastoral letter, we would like to make
    the following recommendations.
  30. FIRST, we ought to face the fact that the problem is local
    36
    r
    as well as national. In the words of one of our Representatives: “The
    thing that has appalled me is that this stuff is very big business,
    that it is going out in millions.” Almost any visit to a local store,
    newsstand, or other place of distnbution, will make anyone aware
    of the fact that some of these millions have reached the local scene.
  31. SECOND, the important work has to be done on the local
    level as well as on the national level. We readily grant with a
    Congressional Committee Report that “the source of this pornographic stream is the publishing house, and while the distnbutor,
    the wholesaler, and the retailer all participate as purveyors, it is
    the publisher who is primarily responsible, since he is the architect
    and creator without whom the chain of distribution could not
    function.”
    These powerful sources, of course, have also to be reached on the
    national level, through some action resulting from Congressional
    investigations. It is hopeful to note here that the National Orgamzation for Decent Literature, of the National Catholic Welfare Conference, has had its influence felt through certain indications of
    some further attempt at self-regulation within the publishing industry.
    It is most hopeful that the concept of self -regulation has finally been
    mentioned and considered, since legal statutes will never suffice
    in matters of this kmd, The NODL, and all who co-operate with
    it, subscribe wholeheartedly to the principle of self-regulation,
    and sincerely hope that it progresses from the correction of salacious covers to the much more important correction of salacious
    content.
    On the local level, we have both the responsibility and the opportunity of achieving definite results. It is on the local level that the
    nation-wide protest began, which led to certain congressional investigations. Through such local protests, public opinion has been
    aroused, and can continue to be aroused. Through such local activity,
    greater diligence on the part of local prosecuting agencies, in
    enforcing statutes already on the books, is brought about.
    We are happy here to commend the work which has been done
    by our Metropolitan Commission on Crime Prevention, which instructed its secretary to write to more than one hundred organizations
    in the Milwaukee area urging the formation of committees to attack
    the problem. These committees, the commission said, should carry
    out educational programs to arouse parental action to combat this
    ever mcreasing blight on the youth of our community.
    We are also pleased to note the Ordmance No. 662, to create
    Section 106-7.5 of the Milwaukee Code of Ordinances, relating to
    37
    the. sale or distribution of obscene literature in the City of Milwaukee,
    which was passed and approved by the Common Council and the
    Mayor on March 7, 1956, and March 9, 1956.
    A great many communities in Wisconsin have now begun organized action to cleanse the newsstands and other points of distribution
    of this sort of thing. Effective representations have been made by a
    number of our local organizations to our representatives and senators.
    We repeat, the Federal Government can and must continue to
    do its part to help preserve civic virtue. The post office, also, can
    take legal action wherever this is indicated, and law-enforcement
    officers can prosecute according to the tenor of the law. But there
    is no substitute for effective local enforcement and effective action,
    by groups such as our Christian Mothers, and all the other organizations of men and women – parents and citizens who are truly
    interested in the welfare of their children, of themselves, and of the
    community at large.
    Most important on the local level, the small distnbutor of such
    reading material can be reached and influenced. Perhaps with all
    the promises that the publishers give, there is little hope of obtaining
    lasting effective results from that quarter. But at least we can do our
    utmost to try to remove this occasion of sin on the local level.
    Without trying to minimize the evil which is done by the publisher,
    as indicated above in the words of the congressional report, or by
    the printers, the distributors, and wholesalers as well, in the last
    analysis, it is the retailer who actually unleashes the flood of filth
    on the reading public. The retailer has the right to refuse to accept
    them. He can refuse to display them. He can refuse to sell the
    dirty ones.
    That there are many retailers who are co-operating, is evident from
    the fact that the Congressional Report states that the amount of
    unsold salacious material returned by dealers to the distributors
    . ‘
    m some instances, runs as high as 40 per cent. The report further
    states that this action is due, in part at least, to local protests. The
    records also show, in other sources, that such local action has influenced the stores on the local level which are controlled by
    national chains.
    We submit that it is our conviction that the great majority of
    local dealers, the country over, are honest, God-fearing men. Even
    though many of them do not share the same Catholic Faith which
    we cherish, they believe in the natural law and in the ten commandmen~s, and_ are also bound by them. When we protest against this
    salacious literature, we are not trying to impose some specific
    38
    \
    “Catholic teachmg” on them. We are appealmg to their own sense
    of decency and belief m the natural law, and to their concern
    for the morals of their own children.
  32. Fmally, when we speak of the local level, we are thmkmg
    first and above all of the homes of our own people. This pastoral
    letter, we have said several times, is primarily directed at our own.
    What we have said about this particular point is therefore also an
    appeal to our own people to safeguard their own homes against this
    type of literature. And here may we mention again that we are
    thmkmg not merely of the evidently or designedly bad or indecent
    literature, but also of that vast output which mingles so much of
    the indecent with what is otherwise proper and decent. Hence, lest
    our recommendations be considered merely negative we exhort our
    people as follows.
    There are two pnncipal ways in which we can safeguard ourselves
    agamst the worldly mfluence of secular readmg. First, we can reduce
    the amount of such secular reading: and, second, we can increase the
    amount of our spmtual readmg. It is almost impossible to lay down
    ~ hard and. fast rule. Certainly, the layman in general must keep
    m touch with the world and modern society in which he lives and
    moves. But he must do so prudently, and in keepmg with his Chns-
    ~an vocation. The amount of secular readmg will surely vary accordmg to the particularized vocation that we have. Professional people,
    such as teachers and lawyers, will surely be required to do a great
    deal more. For all, however, it seems that we can lay down this
    general rule: we must be resolved to avoid that which is indecent
    and salacious, and that which endangers our faith. More positively,
    we must be resolved never to cease from regular reading of the
    right type.
  33. THIRD, we should always remember that we are working
    for the cause of Christ. Hence we should not become discouraged.
    We are working for the purity and the integrity of our children, and
    of ourselves. This is the kind of virtuous effort which requires constant renewal of intention, and the manly determination not to be
    ?iscour~ged by the lack of success on a large scale, or the seemingly
    impossible odds. If we succeed in persuadmg even one dealer to
    eliminate the distribution of such literature, we shall have done
    something very worthwhile. Nay much more, if we are God’s instruments in helping to prevent the commission of even one mortal
    sin, we shall be blessed by our Lord. We are also working for
    the welfare of our country, which can become greater and stronger
    only in proportion to the moral health of its citizens. Above all,
    39
    however, we are working for Christ, and therefore we must perform
    our work with great charity.
    In the light of these exhortations, we caution our Christian
    Mothers, and all others who unite with them in this work, not to
    expect too much from legal statutes and court decisions. These never
    will, nor can they take the place of the intensive personal, local
    activity, and the follow-through on such efforts which count. We
    urge them not to lose heart, in the remembrance that spiritual works
    of mercy are of greater value than corporal works of mercy. Hence,
    of spiritual works of mercy the words of our Lord apply with even
    greater force: “As long as you did it for one of these the least my
    brethren, you did it for me.” Most earnestly, do we caution against
    the resort to threats or recriminations. Charity, in the language
    of St. Paul, is tactful, charily is patiently persistent. We must not
    forget that there are many people who honestly disagree with us
    in fundamental issues. The fact that these people are sincere in their
    opinions does not mean that we must concede these opinions themselves, or that we ourselves should be less vigorous in the defense
    of what we hold to be the truth. But it does mean that we must
    treat them with charity and with respect, and that we cannot use
    force successfully in a cause of this kind.
    VIH. CONCLUSION
  34. Thus, Dearly Beloved, we have wished to bring these matters
    to your attention in conjunction with the annual convention of our
    Archdiocesan Confraternity of Christian Mothers. We have concluded the writing of these various points at the beginning of this
    month of May, which we dedicate to the Immaculate Mother of
    God. The convention of our Christian Mothers itself is annually
    held during this month, during which also our nation sets aside a
    special Sunday on which to honor mothers. Hence, we have felt
    that it is most fitting to appeal especially lo mothers to give us
    the greatest possible assistance in the important matters discussed
    in this letter.
    We have not indeed touched upon all the subjects which are of
    concern to us in the general matter of decency and modesty. Neither,
    as we have stated several times in this letter, have we attempted to
    spell out the detailed application of principles. Like St. John the
    Baptist, we have wanted, however, to be a voice crying out in defense
    40
    of our cherished Christian standards of modesty and punty. We
    realize fully that the aggressive attitude of modern matenalism and
    exaggerated freedom will dispute, or even scorn what we have said.
    Lest it be thought, however, that silence gives consent to these
    modem trends, as a shepherd of souls, heeding the call of our Chief
    Shepherd, the Vicar of Chnst, we have felt obligated to proclaim
    to our people that we cannot approve these violations of Christian
    modesty and decency: “If thou dost not speak to warn the wicked
    man from hrs way, that wicked man shall die m his irnquity, but
    I will require his blood at thy hand. But if thou tell the wicked
    man, that he may be converted from his ways, and he be not
    converted from his way, he shall die in his iniquity but thou hast
    delivered thy soul” ( Ezech. 3 3: 8-9) .
    Dearly Beloved, the struggle against immodesty is only part of
    everyone’s battle against the world, the devil, and the flesh. We do
    not say that modesty and purity are the chief virtues of the Christian.
    The chief virtue and adornment of the Clmstian soul is charity –
    love of God above all things, and love of neighbor for the love of
    God. Charity is the essence of Christian perfection. But we do
    say that the struggle for purity is a most important element in the
    warfare against the enemies of chanty. Immodesty and indecency
    are the chief means of enslaving men to the vice of unchastity and
    impurity, and this vice is particularly corrosive of true charity. Let
    us heed, therefore, the warnings of our Divine Savior to pluck out
    the eye that causes us scandal (cf. Mt. 18: 7-9). Let us hold high
    the true ideal of the Christian who accepts fully the charter of
    Christian perfection: “Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall
    see God” (Mt. 5:3-12).
    In calling particularly upon our Christian Mothers to assist us in
    this crusade, we ask them m their prayers, in their studies, and in
    their activities to strive to reduce what we have said to the practical
    level of everyday living. To encourage them further not to lose
    heart m the daily battle, I would like to recall these following words
    of Pope Pius XII, addressed several years ago to a gathenng of
    Catholic Mothers:
    “You have to prepare your sons and daughters so that they may
    pass with unfaltermg step, like those who pick their way among
    serpents, through that time of cnsis and physical change; and pass
    through it without losmg any of the joy of mnocence, preservmg
    that natural instinct of modesty, with which Providence has girt
    them as a check to wayward passion. That sense of modesty, which
    in its spontaneous abhorrence from the impure, is akin to the sense
    41
    of religion, is made of little account m these days. BUT YOU
    MOTHER:; WILL TAKE CARE that your children do not lose
    it through anything unbecoming in dress or self-adornment, through
    unbecommg famihanties of immoral spectacles; on the contrary,
    you will seek to make it more delicate, more alert, more upnght,
    more smcere.”
  35. Finally, we ask our people to make the following pledge to our
    Blessed Mother, with a prayer for her abidmg maternal assistance:
    a) Pledge of Modesty
    “I believe in the virtue of modesty as the guardian of chashty.
    I pledge myself to hve and fight for the ideals of the virtue of punty
    and the observance of modesty. In particular, I pledge myself to
    live and fight for more decency in the prmted and spoken word, and
    for a Mary-like modesty m dress and action. I promise also to set an
    example for my family and my associates, and to let others know
    where I stand m such matters, in the hope of leading them to greater
    punty of life. I hope to maintain these ideals by cultivating a strong
    personal devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and to the Immaculate
    Heart of Mary.”
    b) Prayer
    “O Mary, thou art the most fruitful of mothers, and the most
    chaste of virgins. With the most profound respect, I venerate the
    mysterious union of these prerogatives in thee; and I congratulate
    thee on thy exemption from all these miseries of our condition –
    on thy spotless purity, and on thy divine motherhood for which it
    prepared thee.
    “O Virgin Mother! protect me through thy heavenly purity,
    and defend me against so many enemies who surround me, and seek
    to deprive me of this most precious possession. Obtain for me, most
    pure Virgin, the grace to aim at the perfection of this virtue, by
    cautious vigilance over my unruly passions, and by carefully avoidmg
    whatever might render me unworthy to be called thy child.
    “Help me to assist others, as far as it lies in my power, in the
    practice and observance of modesty and punty. I am resolved never
    to give scandal to others, and to do what I can to remove the occasions of sin. 0 Mary, Mother of pure souls, show thyself a mother
    42
    to me now and at the hour of my death, and bring me to the
    blessed happiness promised to those who are clean of heart – the
    contemplation and enjoyment of God m Heaven. Amen.”
    With blessing upon all, I remain
    Very sincerely yours m the Hearts of Jesus and Mary,
  • ALBERT G. MEYER
    Archbishop of Milwaukee
    Given at the Chancery Office
    Milwaukee, Wisconsin
    May 1, 1956

Catholic Magazine Publishes Benedict XV on Indecent Fashions

A Catholic Magazine titled, “Our Young People” published a part of Pope Benedict XV’s Allocution, “Sono Avventurati” titled, “Allocution sur la mission de la femme dans la société” first published in French, in Actes de Benoît XV, tome II, Maison de la Bonne Presse, Paris, 1926, p. 69-70.

A larger part of the loosely translated text can be found here.

“‘We rejoice at the resolution which has been formulated that Catholic women, in addition to being modest, should also show themselves such in their manner of dress. Such a resolution expresses the necessity of the good example that Catholic woman ought to give; and oh! how grave, how urgent is the duty of repudiating these exaggerations of fashion which, themselves the fruit of the corruption of their designers, contribute in a deplorable degree to the general corruption of manners. We feel it Our duty to insist in a particular manner on this point, because, on the one hand, We know that certain styles of dress which nowadays have become usual among women are harmful to the well-being of society, as being provocative of evil; and on the other hand. We are filled with amazement that those who communicate the poison seem to realize its malignant action, and those who set the house on fire seem to ignore the destructive force of the fire. It is only the supposition of such ignorance which can explain the deplorable extension in our days of a fashion so contrary to that modesty which ought to be the choicest ornament of the Christian woman.’ —The Holy Father on Indecent Fashions.”

Page 19, Our Young People, Volumes 29-30, Copyrighted by St. John’s Institute, April 1919. Published with the approbation of Most Rev. S. G. Messmer, D. D., Archbishop of Milwaukee.

Modesty – THE PONTIFICAL COUNCIL FOR THE FAMILY – 1995

THE PONTIFICAL COUNCIL FOR THE FAMILY

THE TRUTH AND MEANING
OF HUMAN SEXUALITY

Guidelines for Education within the Family

Decency and Modesty

56. The practice of decency and modesty in speech, action and dress is very important for creating an atmosphere suitable to the growth of chastity, but this must be well motivated by respect for one’s own body and the dignity of others. Parents, as we have said, should be watchful so that certain immoral fashions and attitudes do not violate the integrity of the home, especially through misuse of the mass media. In this regard, the Holy Father stressed the need “to promote closer collaboration between parents, who have primary responsibility for education, those in charge of the mass media at various levels and the public authorities, so that families are not left without guidance in such an important sector of their educational mission… In fact the presentations, content and programmes of healthy entertainment, information and education to complement that of the family and the school must be recognized. Unfortunately this does not change the fact that in some countries especially there are many shows and publications abounding in all sorts of violence with a kind of bombardment of messages that undermine moral principles and make it impossible to achieve a serious climate in which values worthy of the human person may be transmitted”.

In particular, with regard to use of television, the Holy Father specified: “The life-style — especially in the more industrialised nations — all too often causes families to abandon their responsibility to educate their children. Evasion of this duty is made easy by the presence of television and of printed materials in the home. These occupy the time for children and young people. No one can deny the justification for this when the means are lacking, to develop and use to advantage the free time of the young and to direct their energies”. Another circumstance that facilitates this is the fact that both parents are busy with their work, in and outside the home. “The result is that these young people are in most need of help in developing their responsible freedom. There is the duty — especially for believers, for men and women who love freedom, to protect the young from the aggressions they are subjected to by the media. May no one shirk from this duty by using the excuse that he or she is not involved”. “Parents as recipients must actively ensure the moderate, critical, watchful and prudent use of the media”.

St. Perpetua & Her Great Modesty

‘When she was thrown into the air by a savage bull in the amphitheatre at Carthage, her first thought and action when she fell to the ground was to rearrange her dress to cover her thigh, because she was more concerned for modesty than pain.’

Pope Pius XII, Allocution to the Girls of Catholic Action, speaking of St. Perpetua

The Martyrdom of Saints Perpetua and Felicitas

This is the prison diary of a young woman martyered in Carthage in 202 or 203 CE. The beginning and ending are related by an editor/narrator; the central text contains the words of Perpetua herself.

—————————————————–

A number of young catechumens were arrested, Revocatus and his fellow slave Felicitas, Saturninus and Secundulus, and with them Vibia Perpetua, a newly married woman of good family and upbringing. Her mother and father were still alive and one of her two brothers was a catechumen like herself. She was about twenty-two years old and had an infant son at the breast. (Now from this point on the entire account of her ordeal is her own, according to her own ideas and in the way that she herself wrote it down.)

While we were still under arrest (she said) my father out of love for me was trying to persuade me and shake my resolution. ‘Father,’ said I, ‘do you see this vase here, for example, or waterpot or whatever?’

‘Yes, I do’, said he.

And I told him: ‘Could it be called by any other name than what it is?’

And he said: ‘No.’

‘Well, so too I cannot be called anything other than what I am, a Christian.’

At this my father was so angered by the word ‘Christian’ that he moved towards me as though he would pluck my eyes out. But he left it at that and departed, vanquished along with his diabolical arguments.

For a few days afterwards I gave thanks to the Lord that I was separated from my father, and I was comforted by his absence. During these few days I was baptized, and I was inspired by the Spirit not to ask for any other favour after the water but simply the perseverance of the flesh. A few days later we were lodged in the prison; and I was terrified, as I had never before been in such a dark hole. What a difficult time it was! With the crowd the heat was stifling; then there was the extortion of the soldiers; and to crown all, I was tortured with worry for my baby there.

Then Tertius and Pomponius, those blessed deacons who tried to take care of us, bribed the soldiers to allow us to go to a better part of the prison to refresh ourselves for a few hours. Everyone then left that dungeon and shifted for himself. I nursed my baby, who was faint from hunger. In my anxiety I spoke to my mother about the child, I tried to comfort my brother, and I gave the child in their charge. I was in pain because I saw them suffering out of pity for me. These were the trials I had to endure for many days. Then I got permission for my baby to stay with me in prison. At once I recovered my health, relieved as I was of my worry and anxiety over the child. My prison had suddenly become a palace, so that I wanted to be there rather than anywhere else.

Then my brother said to me: ‘Dear sister, you are greatly privileged; surely you might ask for a vision to discover whether you are to be condemned or freed.’

Faithfully I promised that I would, for I knew that I could speak with the Lord, whose great blessings I had come to experience. And so I said: ‘I shall tell you tomorrow.’ Then I made my request and this was the vision I had.

I saw a ladder of tremendous height made of bronze, reaching all the way to the heavens, but it was so narrow that only one person could climb up at a time. To the sides of the ladder were attached all sorts of metal weapons: there were swords, spears, hooks, daggers, and spikes; so that if anyone tried to climb up carelessly or without paying attention, he would be mangled and his flesh would adhere to the weapons.

At the foot of the ladder lay a dragon of enormous size, and it would attack those who tried to climb up and try to terrify them from doing so. And Saturus was the first to go up, he who was later to give himself up of his own accord. He had been the builder of our strength, although he was not present when we were arrested. And he arrived at the top of the staircase and he looked back and said to me: ‘Perpetua, I am waiting for you. But take care; do not let the dragon bite you.’

‘He will not harm me,’ I said, ‘in the name of Christ Jesus.’

Slowly, as though he were afraid of me, the dragon stuck his head out from underneath the ladder. Then, using it as my first step, I trod on his head and went up.

Then I saw an immense garden, and in it a gray-haired man sat in shepherd’s garb; tall he was, and milking sheep. And standing around him were many thousands of people clad in white garments. He raised his head, looked at me, and said: ‘I am glad you have come, my child.’

He called me over to him and gave me, as it were, a mouthful Of the milk he was drawing; and I took it into my cupped hands and consumed it. And all those who stood around said: ‘Amen!’ At the sound of this word I came to, with the taste of something sweet still in my mouth. I at once told this to my brother, and we realized that we would have to suffer, and that from now on we would no longer have any hope in this life.

A few days later there was a rumour that we were going to be given a hearing. My father also arrived from the city, worn with worry, and he came to see me with the idea of persuading me.

‘Daughter,’ he said, ‘have pity on my grey head–have pity on me your father, if I deserve to be called your father, if I have favoured you above all your brothers, if I have raised you to reach this prime of your life. Do not abandon me to be the reproach of men. Think of your brothers, think of your mother and your aunt, think of your child, who will not be able to live once you are gone. Give up your pride! You will destroy all of us! None of us will ever be able to speak freely again if anything happens to you.’

This was the way my father spoke out of love for me, kissing my hands and throwing himself down before me. With tears in his eyes he no longer addressed me as his daughter but as a woman. I was sorry for my father’s sake, because he alone of all my kin would be unhappy to see me suffer.

I tried to comfort him saying: ‘It will all happen in the prisoner’s dock as God wills; for you may be sure that we are not left to ourselves but are all in his power.’

And he left me in great sorrow.

One day while we were eating breakfast we were suddenly hurried off for a hearing. We arrived at the forum, and straight away the story went about the neighbourhood near the forum and a huge crowd gathered. We walked up to the prisoner’s dock. All the others when questioned admitted their guilt. Then, when it came my turn, my father appeared with my son, dragged me from the step, and said: ‘Perform the sacrifice–have pity on your baby!’

Hilarianus the governor, who had received his judicial powers as the successor of the late proconsul Minucius Timinianus, said to me: ‘Have pity on your father’s grey head; have pity on your infant son. Offer the sacrifice for the welfare of the emperors.’

‘I will not’, I retorted.

‘Are you a Christian?’ said Hilarianus.

And I said: ‘Yes, I am.’

When my father persisted in trying to dissuade me, Hilarianus ordered him to be thrown to the ground and beaten with a rod. I felt sorry for father, just as if I myself had been beaten. I felt sorry for his pathetic old age.

Then Hilarianus passed sentence on all of us: we were condemned to the beasts, and we returned to prison in high spirits. But my baby had got used to being nursed at the breast and to staying with me in prison. So I sent the deacon Pomponius straight away to my father to ask for the baby. But father refused to give him over. But as God willed, the baby had no further desire for the breast, nor did I suffer any inflammation; and so I was relieved of any anxiety for my child and of any discomfort in my breasts….

Some days later, an adjutant named Pudens, who was in charge of the prison, began to show us great honour, realizing that we possessed some great power within us. And he began to allow many visitors to see us for our mutual comfort.

Now the day of the contest was approaching, and my father came to see me overwhelmed with sorrow. He started tearing the hairs from his beard and threw them on the ground; he then threw himself on the ground and began to curse his old age and to say such words as would move all creation. I felt sorry for his unhappy old age.

The day before we were to fight with the beasts I saw the following vision. Pomponius the deacon came to the prison gates and began to knock violently. I went out and opened the gate for him. He was dressed in an unbelted white tunic, wearing elaborate sandals. And he said to me: ‘Perpetua, come; we are waiting for you.’

Then he took my hand and we began to walk through rough and broken country. At last we came to the amphitheatre out of breath, and he led me into the centre of the arena.

Then he told me: ‘Do not be afraid. I am here, struggling with you.’ Then he left.

I looked at the enormous crowd who watched in astonishment. I was surprised that no beasts were let loose on me; for I knew that I was condemned to die by the beasts. Then out came an Egyptian against me, of vicious appearance, together with his seconds, to fight with me. There also came up to me some handsome young men to be my seconds and assistants.

My clothes were stripped off, and suddenly I was a man. My seconds began to rub me down with oil (as they are wont to do before a contest). Then I saw the Egyptian on the other side rolling in the dust. Next there came forth a man of marvelous stature, such that he rose above the top of the amphitheatre. He was clad in a beltless purple tunic with two stripes (one on either side) running down the middle of his chest. He wore sandals that were wondrously made of gold and silver, and he carried a wand like an athletic trainer and a green branch on which there were golden apples.

And he asked for silence and said: ‘If this Egyptian defeats her he will slay her with the sword. But if she defeats him, she will receive this branch.’ Then he withdrew.

We drew close to one another and began to let our fists fly. My opponent tried to get hold of my feet, but I kept striking him in the face with the heels of my feet. Then I was raised up into the air and I began to pummel him without as it were touching the ground. Then when I noticed there was a lull, I put my two hands together linking the fingers of one hand with those of the other and thus I got hold of his head. He fell flat on his face and I stepped on his head.

The crowd began to shout and my assistants started to sing psalms. Then I walked up to the trainer and took the branch. He kissed me and said to me: ‘Peace be with you, my daughter!’ I began to walk in triumph towards the Gate of Life. Then I awoke. I realized that it was not with wild animals that I would fight but with the Devil, but I knew that I would win the victory. So much for what I did up until the eve of the contest. About what happened at the contest itself, let him write of it who will.

[Here Saturus tells the story of a vision he had of Perpetua and himself, after they were killed, being carried by four angels into heaven where they were reunited with other martyrs killed in the same persecution.]

[Here the editor/narrator begins to relate the story]:

Such were the remarkable visions of these martyrs, Saturus and Perpetua, written by themselves. As for Secundulus, God called him from this world earlier than the others while he was still in prison, by a special grace that he might not have to face the animals. Yet his flesh, if not his spirit, knew the sword.

As for Felicitas, she too enjoyed the Lord’s favour in this wise. She had been pregnant when she was arrested, and was now in her eighth month. As the day of the spectacle drew near she was very distressed that her martyrdom would be postponed because of her pregnancy; for it is against the law for women with child to be executed. Thus she might have to shed her holy, innocent blood afterwards along with others who were common criminals. Her comrades in martyrdom were also saddened; for they were afraid that they would have to leave behind so fine a companion to travel alone on the same road to hope. And so, two days before the contest, they poured forth a prayer to the Lord in one torrent of common grief. And immediately after their prayer the birth pains came upon her. She suffered a good deal in her labour because of the natural difficulty of an eight months’ delivery.

Hence one of the assistants of the prison guards said to her: ‘You suffer so much now–what will you do when you are tossed to the beasts? Little did you think of them when you refused to sacrifice.’

‘What I am suffering now’, she replied, ‘I suffer by myself. But then another will be inside me who will suffer for me, just as I shall be suffering for him.’

And she gave birth to a girl; and one of the sisters brought her up as her own daughter.

Therefore, since the Holy Spirit has permitted the story of this contest to be written down and by so permitting has willed it, we shall carry out the command or, indeed, the commission of the most saintly Perpetua, however unworthy I might be to add anything to this glorious story. At the same time I shall add one example of her perseverance and nobility of soul.

The military tribune had treated them with extraordinary severity because on the information of certain very foolish people he became afraid that they would be spirited out of the prison by magical spells.

Perpetua spoke to him directly. ‘Why can you not even allow us to refresh ourselves properly? For we are the most distinguished of the condemned prisoners, seeing that we belong to the emperor; we are to fight on his very birthday. Would it not be to your credit if we were brought forth on the day in a healthier condition?’

The officer became disturbed and grew red. So it was that he gave the order that they were to be more humanely treated; and he allowed her brothers and other persons to visit, so that the prisoners could dine in their company. By this time the adjutant who was head of the gaol was himself a Christian.

On the day before, when they had their last meal, which is called the free banquet, they celebrated not a banquet but rather a love feast. They spoke to the mob with the same steadfastness, warned them of God’s judgement, stressing the joy they would have in their suffering, and ridiculing the curiosity of those that came to see them. Saturus said: ‘Will not tomorrow be enough for you? Why are you so eager to see something that you dislike? Our friends today will be our enemies on the morrow. But take careful note of what we look like so that you will recognize us on the day.’ Thus everyone would depart from the prison in amazement, and many of them began to believe.

The day of their victory dawned, and they marched from the prison to the amphitheatre joyfully as though they were going to heaven, with calm faces, trembling, if at all, with joy rather than fear. Perpetua went along with shining countenance and calm step, as the beloved of God, as a wife of Christ, putting down everyone’s stare by her own intense gaze. With them also was Felicitas, glad that she had safely given birth so that now she could fight the beasts, going from one blood bath to another, from the midwife to the gladiator, ready to wash after childbirth in a second baptism.

They were then led up to the gates and the men were forced to put on the robes of priests of Saturn, the women the dress of the priestesses of Ceres. But the noble Perpetua strenuously resisted this to the end.

‘We came to this of our own free will, that our freedom should not be violated. We agreed to pledge our lives provided that we would do no such thing. You agreed with us to do this.’

Even injustice recognized justice. The military tribune agreed. They were to be brought into the arena just as they were. Perpetua then began to sing a psalm: she was already treading on the head of the Egyptian. Revocatus, Saturninus, and Saturus began to warn the on looking mob. Then when they came within sight of Hilarianus, they suggested by their motions and gestures: ‘You have condemned us, but God will condemn you’ was what they were saying.

At this the crowds became enraged and demanded that they be scourged before a line of gladiators. And they rejoiced at this that they had obtained a share in the Lord’s sufferings.

But he who said, Ask and you shall receive, answered their prayer by giving each one the death he had asked for. For whenever they would discuss among themselves their desire for martyrdom, Saturninus indeed insisted that he wanted to be exposed to all the different beasts, that his crown might be all the more glorious. And so at the outset of the contest he and Revocatus were matched with a leopard, and then while in the stocks they were attacked by a bear. As for Saturus, he dreaded nothing more than a bear, and he counted on being killed by one bite of a leopard. Then he was matched with a wild boar; but the gladiator who had tied him to the animal was gored by the boar and died a few days after the contest, whereas Saturus was only dragged along. Then when he was bound in the stocks awaiting the bear, the animal refused to come out of the cages, so that Saturus was called back once more unhurt.

For the young women, however, the Devil had prepared a mad heifer. This was an unusual animal, but it was chosen that their sex might be matched with that of the beast. So they were stripped naked, placed in nets and thus brought out into the arena. Even the crowd was horrified when they saw that one was a delicate young girl and the other was a woman fresh from childbirth with the milk still dripping from her breasts. And so they were brought back again and dressed in unbelted tunics.

First the heifer tossed Perpetua and she fell on her back. Then sitting up she pulled down the tunic that was ripped along the side so that it covered her thighs, thinking more of her modesty than of her pain. Next she asked for a pin to fasten her untidy hair: for it was not right that a martyr should die with her hair in disorder, lest she might seem to be mourning in her hour of triumph.

Then she got up. And seeing that Felicitas had been crushed to the ground, she went over to her, gave her hand, and lifted her up. Then the two stood side by side. But the cruelty of the mob was by now appeased, and so they were called back through the Gate of Life.

There Perpetua was held up by a man named Rusticus who was at the time a catechumen and kept close to her. She awoke from a kind of sleep (so absorbed had she been in ecstasy in the Spirit) and she began to look about her. Then to the amazement of all she said: ‘When are we going to be thrown to that heifer or whatever it is?’

When told that this had already happened, she refused to believe it until she noticed the marks of her rough experience on her person and her dress. Then she called for her brother and spoke to him together with the catechumens and said: ‘You must all stand fast in the faith and love one another, and do not be weakened by what we have gone through.’

At another gate Saturus was earnestly addressing the soldier Pudens. ‘It is exactly’, he said, ‘as I foretold and predicted. So far not one animal has touched me. So now you may believe me with all your heart: I am going in there and I shall be finished off with one bite of the leopard.’ And immediately as the contest was coming to a close a leopard was let loose, and after one bite Saturus was so drenched with blood that as he came away the mob roared in witness to his second baptism: ‘Well washed! Well washed!’ For well washed indeed was one who had been bathed in this manner.

Then he said to the soldier Pudens: ‘Good-bye. Remember me, and remember the faith. These things should not disturb you but rather strengthen you.’

And with this he asked Pudens for a ring from his finger, and dipping it into his wound he gave it back to him again as a pledge and as a record of his bloodshed.

Shortly after he was thrown unconscious with the rest in the usual spot to have his throat cut. But the mob asked that their bodies be brought out into the open that their eyes might be the guilty witnesses of the sword that pierced their flesh. And so the martyrs got up and went to the spot of their own accord as the people wanted them to, and kissing one another they sealed their martyrdom with the ritual kiss of peace. The others took the sword in silence and without moving, especially Saturus, who being the first to climb the stairway was the first to die. For once again he was waiting for Perpetual Perpetua, however, had yet to taste more pain. She screamed as she was struck on the bone; then she took the trembling hand of the young gladiator and guided it to her throat. It was as though so great a woman, feared as she was by the unclean spirit, could not be dispatched unless she herself were willing.

Ah, most valiant and blessed martyrs! Truly are you called and chosen for the glory of Christ Jesus our Lord! And any man who exalts, honours, and worships his glory should read for the consolation of the Church these new deeds of heroism which are no less significant than the tales of old. For these new manifestations of virtue will bear witness to one and the same Spirit who still operates, and to God the Father almighty, to his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom is splendour and immeasurable power for all the ages. Amen.

From The Acts of the Christian Marytrs

texts and translation by Herbert Musurillo

(c) Oxford University Press, 1972

Did Karol Wojtyła ever say partial nudity is okay?

This article is in response to a question concerning the idea supposedly promoted in the book, “Love & Responsibility’ by Karol Wojtyła, before becoming Pope John Paul II.

The book supposedly promotes the idea that, “an attire (he explicitly mentions attire that would include one being ‘partially nude’) in it’s proper place and function is modest! The Church teaches that our sexuality is to be integrated in the entire of our being. Not eliminated! It is not about ‘what’ is worn but about why and where it is worn. This includes bikinis.”

 

Here is our reply.

“Love and Responsibility” is a book written by Karol Wojtyła before he became Pope John Paul II. Therefore, it is not infallible and can be only taken as his opinion on the subject, and is not in any way an explicit example of what the Catholic Church in her entirety promotes and teaches concerning how we are to properly dress our bodies in a way that keeps with its dignity.

Also important to note, “Theology of the Body”, is not magisterial teaching. “In short, the whole argument is about a fascinating and potentially useful constellation of ideas that do not form part of the essential teaching of the Faith…. It’s just somebody’s opinion, not the End of the World or the Consummation of All Things.” source

 

Logically and Theologically, what the Church teaches concerning these matters has much more weight than one Cardinal who had an opinion, that seems to contradict previous Church Teaching, Theology, Papal Encyclicals, and Father / Doctors of the Church’s counsels on the matter.

 

Does this mean that men and women who are unaware of the dignity of their bodies and who dress immodestly are sinning? God knows the details. But those who are aware of the inherent dignity that our bodies have, will be held accountable.

 

Let us first break down the inherent dignity of our bodies.

 

We know that our bodies are not bad, for when God completed the six days of creation, “He saw that it was very good.” (Genesis 1:31) They were created specifically to give honor and glory to God. Alice von Hildebrand, gives a good explanation of this in her article, “Nakedness or Nudity” :

” The most perfect among all the creatures mentioned in Genesis, is man, (homo) for he is made to God’s image and likeness. There is an endless hierarchy among creatures, but those that are “images” (imago) of God are greatly superior to those who are just traces (vestigium) of His power.”

” Adam and Eve were created beautiful. I am not only referring to the ontological beauty of creatures made to God’s image and likeness, but also “artistically” beautiful. The body of a human person is a masterpiece. Magnificent as animals are and can be, none of them has the dignity and nobility of a human body. “

” Nudity calls for covering because of its mystery, and this mystery should be unveiled only in the privileged moments when God allows the spouses to reveal themselves to each other in the sacrament of matrimony.” (Which is pretty much what Karol Wojtyła was talking about in his “Theology of the Body” and “Love & Responsibility”. He was not giving us the “OK” to walk around half naked.

 

 

 

Original Sin gave us Concupiscence; we now have the obligation to honor our God-given bodies by covering them with dignity and modesty, and are unable to live without being subject of the rebellions of the flesh, as Adam & Eve were before the Fall.

 

Before Original sin came about, Genesis Chapter 2: 25 says that “And they were both naked: to wit, Adam and his wife: and were not ashamed.” Then, in Genesis Chapter 3 verses 6-10 it relates:

” And the woman saw that the tree was good to eat, and fair to the eyes, and delightful to behold: and she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave to her husband who did eat. And the eyes of them both were opened: and when they perceived themselves to be naked, they sewed together fig leaves, and made themselves aprons. And when they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in paradise at the afternoon air, Adam and his wife hid themselves from the face of the Lord God, amidst the trees of paradise. And the Lord God called Adam, and said to him: Where art thou? And he said: I heard thy voice in paradise; and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself. “

The Douay-Rheims Bible has a footnote that explains something very important, ” [7] “And the eyes”: Not that they were blind before, (for the woman saw that the tree was fair to the eyes, ver. 6.) nor yet that their eyes were opened to any more perfect knowledge of good; but only to the unhappy experience of having lost the good of original grace and innocence, and incurred the dreadful evil of sin. From whence followed a shame of their being naked; which they minded not before; because being now stript of original grace, they quickly began to be subject to the shameful rebellions of the flesh.”

 

A question one might ask oneself is, “How exactly could something of such great importance, as called by the Church, suddenly no longer be so? Have we lost our concupiscence which we have been born with, thanks to Adam and Eve’s sin? Have we gained a miraculous ability to no longer be tempted? Is Original Sin merely situational?

 

Alice von Hildebrand speaks volumes concerning this in her article, saying this of downplaying of temptation and the like, “King David’s sins underscore how sexual desire can degenerate into what Dietrich calls “diabolical” temptations.  Some of the most atrocious perversions occur when the Devil takes over completely.  And one should never downplay, or minimize, the gravity of these evils. It is plainly false to claim that such abuses are “tragic,” rather than “filthy.””

Never, absolutely never would a saint say, “I am beyond and above temptations of the flesh”.  Never would a saint declare that, were he to see a naked woman,  his acquaintance with the Theology of the Body would  guarantee that he wouldn’t be subject to temptation. As Monsignor Knox points out, to believe a Christian, however faithful, can place himself in spiritual danger and never fall prey to it, is a common error among religious enthusiasts. The Beghards come to mind: Thus these enthusiasts “looked upon decency and modesty as marks of inward corruption, as the characters of a soul that was still under the dominion of the sensual, animal, and lascivious spirit, and that was not really united to the divine nature. This was the account they themselves gave of their promiscuous lodging, and the nudism practiced in their assemblies.” (Enthusiasm, 1950, p. 125) Such people, writes Msgr. Knox, believed that once “they yield their bodies to the Holy Ghost,” they ”would never sin again.”  (p. 567) In the presence of a living woman, he continues, the enthusiast, is “ trained to feel as though he were standing by a wall of stone. His eye must be rendered cold, his pulse must be kept calm.” (p. 573). But this is to commit the sin of presumption.

It must be remarked, however, that there are situations in which a priest can find himself in dangerous situation “without being endangered”: for example when a slightly clad prostitute  is struck by a car, and calls for help. It is the duty of a priest to respond to this call: God will give him the grace to concentrate exclusively on his mission,  bringing the dying person to God. Professional grace is also given to doctors: otherwise, no doctor should accept  operating on a very beautiful female body because, instead of operating on a sick patient, he would be preoccupied with sexual fantasies.”

 

And again, back to Genesis, Alice von Hildebrand notes ” we have been profoundly affected by original sin.

‘In paradise there was perfect harmony between Adam and Eve. There was no concupiscence.’

‘After original sin, not only were we separated from God and condemned to losing eternity. On top of it, every single human faculty was affected. Our intelligence was darkened. Our will was weakened. And all of a sudden, we had the dreadful experience of something called concupiscence.

Before the Fall, there was no inner temptation to impurity between Adam and Eve even though they were naked, After they sinned, the two started to look at one another with concupiscence.

The Fall had consequences that are ‘so serious’ that it was only the Redemption and the grace of God could remedy.

The fight against concupiscence is not an easy process. It is something that calls for holiness, which very few of us achieve. It is a sheer illusion to believe that by some sort of new technique we can find the solution to the problem.”

 

Sister Lucia of Fatima wrote a last book that she finished on the 25th of March 1997 , in this book, Lucia speaks about the customs of her country at the time of the apparitions and, naturally, she speaks about the clothing:

God did not give us clothing as an adornment in order to feed our human vanity and frivolity. No! He gave it to us as a protection against sin, as a sign of penance for sin committed, and a punishment for it, as well as to remind us of the laws of God which we are all obliged to obey.

Let us begin by examining how it is a sign of punishment and penance for sin committed, and a protection against temptation. The sacred text tells us that, after they had sinned, Adam and Eve tried to cover themselves with fig leaves; but God did not think this was enough because, Sacred Scripture tells us, He “made clothes out of skins for the man and his wife, and they put them on.” (Gen. 3, 21).

Besides being a protection against sin, the modest clothing with which we must cover ourselves is a distinguishing mark setting us apart in the stream of immorality and enabling us to be, for the world, true witnesses of Christ.

Our clothes, then, are to be a protection for the eyes and the heart, so that we will not allow ourselves to be caught in the temptations of the flesh, the devil and the world.

 

Unveiling what should remain hidden – Princeton research & the dignity of women.

 

The Catechism of the Catholic Church says, ” 2521 Purity requires modesty, an integral part of temperance. Modesty protects the intimate center of the person. It means refusing to unveil what should remain hidden. It is ordered to chastity to whose sensitivity it bears witness. It guides how one looks at others and behaves toward them in conformity with the dignity of persons and their solidarity.”

“Refusing to unveil what should remain hidden” – does that bring the Bikini to mind? Does the bikini hide anything?

“Guiding how one looks at others” – aside from the Theological problems of immodest dress, the secular has brought some interesting data concerning Bikinis. Lead researcher Susan Fiske, a psychologist at Princeton University recently published date in 2009, from brain scans revealing that when men are shown pictures of scantily clad women. Fiske noted, “some of the men studied showed no activity in the part of the brain that usually responds when a person ponders another’s intentions” and, in fact, ” the region of the brain associated with tool use lights up.” This means that these men see women “as sexually inviting, but they are not thinking about their minds,” Fiske said. “The lack of activation in this social cognition area is really odd, because it hardly ever happens.” – source –

Considering this automatic brain response, is it the Christian thing to do, whether we want make ourselves sexy or not, to dress this way? What would a Saint do?

And finally, the most important question: DOES THIS DO MORE HARM THAN GOOD TO THE DIGNITY TO WOMEN!? Uhm, yes. Yes it does.

 

The Church decries immodesty in dress, not only in thought, word & speech.

 

Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922) spoke of the deplorable immodesty in society, in his Encyclical to the Third Order St. Francis, “SACRA PROPEDIEM“, and encouraged especially the Tertiary Sisters, “by their dress and manner of wearing it, to be models of holy modesty for other ladies and young girls; that they be thoroughly convinced that the best way for them to be of use to the Church and to Society is to labor for the improvement of morals.”

He goes on to say, about society:

“..one cannot sufficiently deplore the blindness of so many women of every age and condition; made foolish by desire to please, they do not see to what a degree the in decency of their clothing shocks every honest man, and offends God. Most of them would formerly have blushed for those fashions as for a grave fault against Christian modesty; now it does not suffice for them to exhibit them on the public thoroughfares…..

In what concerns specially the Tertiary Sisters, We ask of them by their dress and manner of wearing it, to be models of holy modesty for other ladies and young girls; that they be thoroughly convinced that the best way for them to be of use to the Church and to Society is to labor for the improvement of morals.”

 

In the Encyclical, “Ad Salutem“, April 30, 1930, Pope Pius XI stated that, ” Christian women can never be at too great pains to abolish immodest fashions of dress.”

 

Cardinal Sbarretti Sabine wrote in the Instruction to Diocesan Ordinaries on Indecent Women’s Fashion by the Sacred Congregation of the Council, January 12, 1930,

“Often when the occasion arose, the Pope disapproved and condemned severely indecent modes introduced everywhere today in the clothing habits of women and girls even Catholic; not only these modes gravely offend the dignity and feminine grace, but unfortunately cause temporal damage for the woman and, what is worse, his eternal loss and others.” 

 

Pope Pius XII condemned the idea that a sin such as wearing an immodest fashion is acceptable (i.e. not sinful) if it is customary at a given time and/or place. The principle of majority is no rule of conduct. (There are many evil practices that are widely accepted.)

“Yet, no matter how broad and changeable the relative morals of styles may be, there is always an absolute norm to be kept after having heard the admonition of conscience warning against approaching danger: style must never be a proximate occasion of sin.”

This was before the Bikini came out in 1946; Designer Louis Reard was unable to find a ‘respectable’ model for his costume and the job of displaying it went to 19-year-old Micheline Bernardini, a nude dancer from the Casino de Paris. According to research, it was banned in Catholic Countries such as Spain, Brazil & Portugal and deemed sinful by the Vatican.

 

Father of the Church St. Clement of Alexandria wrote,

“But by no manner of means are women to be allotted to uncover and exhibit any part of their person, lest both fall — the men by being excited to look, the women by drawing on themselves the eyes of the men. But always must we conduct ourselves as in the Lord’s presence.”

We know that the Catholic Church is not Sharia Law, and does not mean to cover women’s bodies from head to toe. Prudence and common sense is called for, and for Mass there are Modesty Guidelines.

 

St. Ambrose, a Doctor of the Church also spoke of Modesty, “All outside appearances reveal the condition of our mind; although our passions are hidden, they manifest themselves exteriorly… Modesty is suitable for all ages and for all classes of persons; for all times and places.” (De Officiis 1:18-19)

 

St. Alphonsus Liguori, Doctor of the Church writes in his book, “True Spouse of Jesus Christ“,

” Almost all our rebellious passions spring from unguarded looks; for, generally speaking, it is by the sight that all inordinate affections and desires are excited.

The devil first tempts us to look, then to desire, and afterwards to consent. St. Jerome says that Satan requires ‘only a beginning on our part.’ If we begin, he will complete our destruction.”

He also speaks of immodesty in his “Full Ascetical Works:

“A mortal sin of scandal committed by women that go with them shamelessly exposed breast, or that expose their members incorrectly.  Also by the actors in lewd comedies , and more par people who make up these comedies ; also by painters who paint obscene images or like, and by the heads of families who keep these photos in their homes . The father who speaks obscene or blasphemous saints in the presence of her children, and the mother who brings in her home to live among his girls young men who are in love with them Or fiancées or other suspects, are guilty of a more serious sin of scandal. Some mothers say, “I do not think any harm.” I reply that it is their duty to suspect; otherwise they shall give account to God for all the sins that can follow.”

Full ascetical works of St. Alphonsus  , vol 15, p. 399-400)

 

In Ven. Pope Pius XII , Allocution to the International Congress of High Fashion, (November 8, 1957, Petrópolis: Vozes, 1958, pp. 12-13.) He speaks thoroughly on fashions and the issues of immorality but also of prudence,

” The Church does not reprove or condemn a fashion when it is intended to be a fair decorum and adornment of the body. However, she never fails to warn the faithful against its easy deviations. This positive attitude of the Church derives from higher motives than the merely aesthetic and hedonist ends defended by a new paganism.

She knows and teaches that the human body, a masterpiece of God in the visible world at the service of the soul, was elevated by the Divine Redeemer to be a temple and instrument of the Holy Ghost, and must be respected as such.

Its beauty, therefore, should not be exalted as an end per se and still less as in a way that degrades that acquired dignity.

In point of fact, it is indisputable that, besides an honest fashion, there is another immoral one, which is a cause of disturbance – if not a stimulus to evil – to tranquil spirits.

It is always difficult to set out universal rules for the boundaries between honesty and immorality, since the moral evaluation of clothing relies on many factors. However, the alleged relativity of fashion regarding different times, places, persons and formations is not a valid reasont a priori not to issue a moral judgment about this or that fashion that transgresses the boundaries of a normal modesty.

Modesty, almost of itself, immediately sounds an alert to the presence of indecency and seduction, materialism and luxury – or even just frivolity. If the architects of the immoral fashions are skilfull in disguising perversion by mixing it with an ensemble of honest aesthetic elements, still more skilfull and quick is human sensuality to discover it and feel its fascination.

One who has sensitivity to discern the insidious character of evil should not be censured, as if this were an effect of an inner depravatity: on the contrary, such sensitivity is a sign of purity of spirit and vigilance over the passions.

No matter how broad and changeable the relative morals of fashion may be, when a danger is noticed,there is always an absolute norm to be maintained after having heard the admonition of conscience: fashion must never be a near occasion of sin.”

 

The Bikini and Nudity – a pagan practice?

 

Ven. Fulton Sheen spoke of the three Characteristics of the Diabolical, with “Love of nudity” being among them.

In a secular article titled, “Paganism: A Naked Rebellion: A look at paganism, its affinity for nudity, and how it differs from mainstream religions”, Brian Dunning, a science writer and author writes about the popularity of nudity in paganism:

“One popular allure of paganism is its embracing of free sex and public nudity. I’ve always believed that more people secretly appreciate free sex and public nudity than are willing to admit it. Wiccans have even institutionalized nudity, calling it ‘skyclad.’ “

 

The Jesuits in Brazil, 1549, had found the nudity of the Brazilian Indian women to be of the most trying native custom. But later, they found the newly-converted Christian women then wore clothing. (source)

 

 

Forms of the Bikini has been around for thousands of years: Archaeologist James Mellaart described the earliest bikini-like costume in Çatalhöyük, Anatolia in the Chalcolithic era (around 5600 BC), where a mother goddess is depicted astride two leopards wearing a costume somewhat like a bikini.

” In Rome, the first regular exercise was almost exclusively done for military preparedness. Agrippa wanted to extend athletic training to promote the practicality for both men and women. Thus, the two-piece garment became more of a daily item than a fashion statement.

In ‘Coronation of the Winner’, a mosaic on the floor of a Roman villa in Sicily that dates from the Diocletian period (286–305 AD), young women participate in weightlifting, discus throwing, and running ball games dressed in bikini-like garments. “ source

 

It was around the year 203 A.D. that Early Christian Martyr St. Perpetua was known to cover her legs as she was thrown to and fro in the lion dens – to cover her modesty! “When she was thrown into the air by a savage bull in the amphitheatre at Carthage, her first thought and action when she fell to the ground was to rearrange her dress to cover her thigh, because she was more concerned for modesty than pain.”

Pope Pius XII, Allocution to the Girls of Catholic Action, speaking of St. Perpetua

This speaks volumes of the difference between the Pagans and Christians idea of modesty in dress.

 

To finish, Michael D. O’Brien of LifeSiteNews wrote, ” The naked human body will always be for us something about which we cannot remain absolutely neutral—precisely because this ‘something’ is not a thing, and never will be, no matter how determined we are to make it so.” and he adds, ” In former generations there was a good deal of unhealthy fear of the body, a kind of wound caused by the errors of puritanical sects or the heresy of Jansenism.”

 

Therefore, we can conclude with confidence, that nudity, partial or total is not Christian, nor is it promoted by Karol Wojtyła , and even if it was, it is not of Church Teaching and can be deemed invalid and not characteristic of Catholic Teaching.

 

 

 

Does the Church Have a Dress Code?

Women must be decently dressed, especially when they go to church. The parish priest may, with due prudence, refuse them entrance to the church and access to the reception of the Sacraments, [each] and every time that they come to church immodestly dressed.” (General Pastoral Directive, 1915 A.D.)

Although immodesty in dress was not unheard of from the lips of the Popes, it was around the time of Pope Pius XI that a Dress Code of sorts came about.

Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922) spoke of the deplorable immodesty in society, in his Encyclical to the Third Order St. Francis, “SACRA PROPEDIEM“, and encouraged especially the Tertiary Sisters, “by their dress and manner of wearing it, to be models of holy modesty for other ladies and young girls; that they be thoroughly convinced that the best way for them to be of use to the Church and to Society is to labor for the improvement of morals.”

He goes on to say, about society:

“..one cannot sufficiently deplore the blindness of so many women of every age and condition; made foolish by desire to please, they do not see to what a degree the in decency of their clothing shocks every honest man, and offends God. Most of them would formerly have blushed for those toilettes as for a grave fault against Christian modesty; now it does not suffice for them to exhibit them on the public thoroughfares; they do not fear to cross the threshold of the churches, to assist at the Holy sacrifice of the Mass, and even to bear the seducing food of shameful passions to the Eucharistic Table where one receives the heavenly Author of purity. And We speak not of those exotic and barbarous dances recently imported into fashionable circles, one more shocking than the other; one cannot imagine anything more suitable for banishing all the remains of modesty.

In considering attentively this state of things, the Tertiaries will understand what it is that our epoch expects from the disciples of St. Francis. If they bring their gaze back to the life of their Father, they will see what perfect and living resemblance to Jesus Christ, above all in His flight from satisfactions and his love of trials in this life, had he whom they call the Poverello, and who had received in his flesh the stigmata of the Crucified. It is for them to show that they remain worthy of him by embracing poverty, at least in spirit, in renouncing themselves, and in bearing each one his cross.

In what concerns specially the Tertiary Sisters, We ask of them by their dress and manner of wearing it, to be models of holy modesty for other ladies and young girls; that they be thoroughly convinced that the best way for them to be of use to the Church and to Society is to labor for the improvement of morals.”

In “Remarks on the woman’s mission in society” to a delegation of the Union of Catholic Women, October 21, 1919, Pope Benedict XV said, “We must hasten, however, to We congratulate the resolution we just made, you will ensure that Catholic women feel obliged to not only be honest, but to prove his honesty by way of dressing. Such resolution recalls the need for the Catholic woman to set a good example.

Ignorance alone can explain the deplorable extension taken today by a fashion so contrary to modesty, the most beautiful ornament of the Christian woman; better informed, it seems to us that a woman could never have come to this excess wear indecent dressing into the holy place, under the gaze of natural masters and the most authoritative of Christian morality.” 

Pope Benedict XV, ”  Remarks on the woman’s mission in society” to a delegation of the Union of Catholic Women, October 21, 1919, inProceedings of Benedict XV,Volume II, House of the Good Press, Paris, 1926 p. 69-70

Pope Pius XI had decried the Immodesty of women and called for those who dressed immodestly TO BE DE-BARRED FROM HOLY COMMUNION:

“Maidens and women dressed immodestly are to be debarred from Holy Communion and from acting as sponsors at the Sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation; further, if the offense be extreme, they may even be forbidden to enter the church.”

(Original letter published in Acta Apostolicae Sedis of 1930 vol. 22, pp. 26-28)

He spoke again of the importance of modesty in sports, in his encyclical, “Divini Illius Magistri” DECEMBER 31, 1929.

In 1930 a letter of the Sacred Congregation of the Council (Acta Apostolicae Sedis 1930 vol. 22, pp. 26-28) was issued. This was addressed to the whole world. It condemned emphatically “the immodest fashion of dress adopted by Catholic women and girls, which fashion not only offends the dignity of women, but conduces to the temporal ruin of the women and girls, and, what is still worse, to their eternal ruin, miserably dragging down others in their fall.”

These instructions were given (among others):

1. “The parish priest should command that feminine garb be based on modesty, and womanly ornament be a defence of virtue. Let them likewise admonish parents to cause their daughters to cease wearing indecorous dress.”

2. “Teachers must not receive in their colleges and schools immodestly dressed girls.”

3. “Maidens and women dressed immodestly are to be debarred from Holy Communion … further, if the offence be extreme, they may even be forbidden to enter the Church.”

(I X . Puellae et mulieres, quae inhonestas vestes induunt, a Sancta Communione
et a munere matrinae in sacramentis Baptismi et Confirmationis
arceantur, atque, si casus ferat, ab ipso ecclesiae ingressu prohibeantur.)

In another Encyclical he wrote:

“It is abundantly clear that readers of Augustine will not be caught in the toils of that pernicious error, which was widespread during the eighteenth century, namely, that the inborn impulses of the will should neither be feared nor curbed, since all of them are right and sound. From its false principle sprang those educational methods, which We condemned not long ago in Our Encyclical on “The Christian Education of Youth.” Their effect is to allow a free mingling of the sexes and to employ no precaution in controlling the growing passions of boyhood and youth. From this false principle too comes that license in writing and reading, in presenting or frequenting plays, that do not merely threaten innocence and purity with dangerous occasions, but actually plot their ruin and destruction. From this source again are derived those immodest fashions of dress, which Christian women can never be at too great pains to abolish.”

Ad Salutem“, April 30, 1930 A.D.

The Pope’s weren’t the only ones who spoke out about the dangers of immodesty and indecent attire. In 1925 the Bishops of Belgium issued a serious call concerning indecent fashions, quoting, People who are not well dressed are asked not to approach the communion rail.”

(The Catholic Tunisia , October 11, 1925, p. 750 -752)

An article in Le Figaro, published on December 20, 1920 by His Eminence Cardinal Louis-Ernest Dubois spoke of a letter that “was read from the pulpit in every church in the diocese, the following warning of the new archbishop of Paris, ‘against indecent modes and unseemly dances.'” quoting, “We urge our diocesan react against the opposing modes to Christian decency.”

Le Figaro , 66 th year, 3 E Series, No. 354, Monday, December 20, 1920, p. 2 .

Continues letters and calls to decent Fashions streamed from chanceries and pulpits during these years (1920s-1940s), as it was becoming the “mode” to throw off old ways and do whatever was scandalous (for those days).

One must understand that the fashions of the 1920’s were not of such terrible immodesty as was the intent of scandal that was behind it. The lifestyle of the “Flapper Girl” that was behind much of the new crazes pushed for a “freer” lifestyle. One that, without the Church reminding Catholic’s of their duties, would easily cause many souls of forget all Modesty in dress, speech, and so on.

The new dances may not be of such concern today, but when they first came out in the 20’s, it was to be as much of a scandal as possible. Shaking parts of their bodies that were so un-exposed before. Hiking up their skirts to expose their knees – a “scandalous” deed back then. Smoking and drinking excessively, sleeping around freely, flirting with every person that came their way. Moving pictures gave the public more  freedom concerning dirty movies. All of these immodesties called for the Church to openly speak about the dangers of such acts. For who knew where and when it would stop?

Cardinal-Vicar of Pope Pius XI, Cardinal Pompili (photo on left), on 24 September 1928 issued Guidelines to help Catholic women with regard to Fashion – and what they could consider to be Modest and proper for Mass (and so on).

 “A dress cannot be called decent which is cut deeper than two fingers’ breadth under the pit of the throat, which does not cover the arms at least to the elbows, and scarcely reaches beyond the knees. Furthermore, dresses of transparent materials are improper.”

There has been a concession with regard to sleeve length, because of market conditions.

Brother Raymond-Marie Rouleau, Archbishop of Quebec, wrote in 1930: (loosely translated from French)In order to determine precisely what is to be considered what is appropriate, (or) improper attire to be worn by the person assisting at Mass…We take the following rule to the letter of His Eminence Cardinal Vicar [ Basilio Pompilj ] addressed on 24 September 1928 to all higher schools of sponsorships and girls in the city of Rome..

We hope that all the girls and women of our diocese will be a duty to comply with these provisions and to set an example of Christian modesty with the submission to the will of the Vicar of Jesus Christ. It goes without saying that sanctions brought by the Sacred Congregation must be applied with equal prudence and firmness , to stop immediately and as effectively as possible the scourge of immodesty.

Circular clergy” , Part No. I, April 6, 1930, published in Mandements, pastoral letters and circulars of the bishops of Quebec , Supplement No. 33, p. 15 , New Series, Volume 9, Quebec, in 1925.

Rufino J. Cardinal Santos, Archbishop of Manila, quotes these guidelines as “The Church’s stand concerning modesty in dress” in his Pastoral of December 6, 1959. He was known for launching many religious crusades, including the Purity Crusade for Mary Immaculate.

The Bishops in Quebec, Canada also wrote a lengthy Joint Pastoral Letter titled, “Purity Crusade“, concerning the grave importance of Modesty in Dress, published May 5th 1946. Earlier they had quoted,

“Synod of Quebec (1940), Decree 102, notes: “What if we ask what is a modest and decent attire ( minimum ) for a Christian, as we understand it’s one that covers the chest and the arms of non-transparent fabric, which goes down at least mid-leg, and whose cup a suitable extent protects modesty hiding body lines ” (Cardinal Rouleau,  December 8, 1930 ,  Mandements of Bishops of Quebec , . vol XIII, Supplement 45) [made in: 36].

Address of Pope Pius XII to young girls of Catholic Action of Rome, members of the Crusade for Purity, on May 22, 1941. ‘How many girls there are who do not see any wrongdoing in following certain shameless styles like so many sheep. They certainly would blush if they could guess the impression they make and the feelings they evoke in those who see them.’ Pope Pius XII

Address of Pope Pius XII to young girls of Catholic Action of Rome, members of the Crusade for Purity, on May 22, 1941. An telling instruction from the Sacred Congregation of the Council, January 12, 1930, speaks volumes of the importance that Pope Pius XII held modesty in dress to: “Under the supreme apostolate which God has entrusted the performance of the whole Church, His Holiness Pope Pius XI has never ceased to teach by word and writings the precept of St. Paul: “That women wear decent clothes, adorning themselves with modesty and simplicity (…) and as befits women who profess to worship God through good works. “

Often when the occasion arose, the Pope disapproved and condemned severely indecent modes introduced everywhere today in the clothing habits of women and girls even Catholic; not only these modes gravely offend the dignity and feminine grace, but unfortunately cause temporal damage for the woman and, what is worse, his eternal loss and others.” 

(D. Card. Sbarretti Sabine bishop and Poggio Mirteto, Prefect. JULES, Bishop of Lampsacus, Secretary. Instruction to Diocesan Ordinaries on Indecent Women’s Fashion by the Sacred Congregation of the Council, January 12, 1930)

Is it still Relevant Today?

There is still a sign outside the Vatican which tells the visitors how to dress. And if you are dressed more immodestly you will be thrown out or given paper clothing to wear! And as you can see, they still adhere to the original Modesty Guidelines, “shoulder and knees covered, nothing too low-cut… etc.”  The Papal Audience Dress Code should at least be thought about adhering to when in the Presence of, not just the Pope, but the Blessed Sacrament! 

Pope Pius XII condemned the idea that a sin such as wearing an immodest fashion is acceptable (i.e. not sinful) if it is customary at a given time and/or place. The principle of majority is no rule of conduct. (There are many evil practices that are widely accepted.)

“Yet, no matter how broad and changeable the relative morals of styles may be, there is always an absolute norm to be kept after having heard the admonition of conscience warning against approaching danger: style must never be a proximate occasion of sin.”(An ADDRESS of Pope Pius XII to a Congress of the “Latin Union of High Fashion” November 8, 1957.)

The SACRED CONGREGATION FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE FAITH: PERSONA HUMANA : DECLARATION ON CERTAIN QUESTIONS CONCERNING SEXUAL ETHICS says,“In moral matters man cannot make value judgments according to his personal whim: “In the depths of his conscience, man detects a law which he does not impose on himself, but which holds him to obedience. . . . For man has in his heart a law written by God. To obey it is the very dignity of man; according to it he will be judged.””

The virtue of chastity, however, is in no way confined solely to avoiding the faults already listed. It is aimed at attaining higher and more positive goals. It is a virtue which concerns the whole personality, as regards both interior and outward behavior.” Learn to respect and love one another. But do it completely. 

Are we a “generation that are pure in their own eyes, and yet are not washed from their filthiness.” [Proverbs 30:12] ?

 In 2006 the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops issued a statement titled, “Happy Are Those Who Are Called To His Supper: On Preparing to Receive Christ Worthily in the Eucharist”, in the statement is this portion on dressing well for Holy Mass; “Appropriate attire — We should also come to the sacred liturgy appropriately dressed. As Christians we should dress in a modest manner, wearing clothes that reflect our reverence for God and that manifest our respect for the dignity of the liturgy and for one another.”

As we can see, the importance of the issue of modesty, especially in the Presence of the Holy Eucharist is still very important.

A question one might ask oneself is, “How exactly could something of such great importance, as called by the Church, suddenly no longer be so? Have we lost our concupiscence which we have been born with, thanks to Adam and Eve’s sin? Have we gained a miraculous ability to no longer be tempted?”

Alice von Hildebrand speaks volumes concerning this in her article, saying this of downplaying of temptation and the like, “King David’s sins underscore how sexual desire can degenerate into what Dietrich calls “diabolical” temptations.  Some of the most atrocious perversions occur when the Devil takes over completely.  And one should never downplay, or minimize, the gravity of these evils. It is plainly false to claim that such abuses are “tragic,” rather than “filthy.”” Her book, “The Dark Night of the Body” is another interesting and great source on this topic. Even secular sources’ findings concerning the primal feelings that man, in general, have, when it comes to the Bikini (As well as the mini skirt) is a loud warning bell to any Catholic. One can learn to love the other for their God-given beauty and their Temple of the Holy Spirit as much as they can, but even great Saints take steps to fight temptation. St. Thomas Aquinas for one example – threw a burning log at a prostitute coming into his room to tempt him.

St. Padre Pio had a great love for Modesty, take a look at some of his letter:“Most of all it was modest in the way of dressing that was most dear to the Padre’s heart, no matter where one lived. The reason that the Saint worried was that an indecent way of dressing can be scandalous and an occasion of sin for anyone.’”

(IASENZANIRO, FR. MARCELLINO. PADRE PIO TESTIMONIES. VOL 1. SAN GIOVANNO ROTUNDO, ITALY: EZIOLINI POADRE PIO PIETRELCINA, P 149.)

Although one story in particular has not held true concerning St. Padre Pio and modesty, and that is the story of his “putting a sign debarring certain women with certain dress lengths from confession.” This story has been proven to be false.

St. Dominic Savio was also a great lover and promoter of purity and modesty.

St. Maria Goretti as well.

Even an early Christian martyr, St. Perpetua was known to cover her legs as she was thrown to and fro in the lion dens – to cover her modesty!’When she was thrown into the air by a savage bull in the amphitheatre at Carthage, her first thought and action when she fell to the ground was to rearrange her dress to cover her thigh, because she was more concerned for modesty than pain.’ 

Pope Pius XII, Allocution to the Girls of Catholic Action, speaking of St. Perpetua

Conclusion / Final Notes

The Catholic Church isn’t dumb; we are not expected to wear old fashioned or ugly clothing, covering our bodies likened to Sharia Law! Pope Pius XII actually calls us to follow the fashion, but with prudence! He called it an act of charity! He has even said that Fashion and Modesty go together.

We are called to look to these guidelines for the sole reason that we know without a doubt that our dress (and, remember we must be modest in our looks, thoughts, words and actions also!) will never be a source of scandal or sin to others.

It’s not “two more inches and you are sinning!” but rather “here is a Standard that will make it easier for you to be able to build a wardrobe around, without having to worry about Modesty at all!” And even if some willfully dress immodestly, it is never our place to hate those people, or treat them badly! Never! We are called to be examples, and to tell the truth when it is charitably necessary (if people don’t know what is modesty they cannot dress modestly), but we are not called to judge if a person is purposefully dressing sinfully to make men lust after them! Most people have no idea anymore! And then need our prayers, our charitable information when possible, and most of all … our example It would be really easy to believe that we could dress how we think is modest, but as mentioned before; something are more difficult than others when it comes to temptation. It is up to both genders to dress modestly, be pure in heart and mind, “flee thou youthful desires, and pursue justice, faith, charity, and peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart.” [2 Timothy 2:22]

If we tried to “cover up” parts of ourselves that were a “stumbling block” or “temptation” for others it would be impossible. As even the mere thought of a person can bring about temptation. It is up to us to fight these temptations, yet not making it harder for our Brothers and Sisters in Christ.

Few “dress codes” have been made by some Christians that have proven to make no sense at all concerning “inches” and “situational outfits”. Is Original Sin merely situational?  Prudence and common sense calls us as Catholics to follow a moral guideline, not our feelings, as most Catholic issues. As the Catholic Church has so very much pointed out the importance of Modesty in dress, as well as other areas, we should at least adhere to the seriousness, and the importance.

We will continue to update this portion of the website as we obtain more information concerning Modesty in Dress & the Church.

Adultery ‘in the heart’ – St. John Paul II

“Adultery ‘in the heart’ is committed not only because man ‘looks’ in this way at a woman who is not his wife, but precisely because he looks at a woman in this way. Even if he looked in this way at the woman who is his wife, he could likewise commit adultery ‘in his heart.’

Pope John Paul II, “Blessed are the Pure of Heart,” §2, October 8, 1980 audience, published by Daughters of St. Paul, 50 St. Paul Ave, Boston, MA 02130, l983

Pope Pius XII – The Christian concept of fashion

The female youth of Italian Catholic Action has undertaken in 1940, in Italy, a “crusade of purity” against the immorality of fashion, the Holy Father congratulated the delegation of 3,000 members and reminded them that Christian principles should govern the feminine attire and attitude that must have Christian girls in front of immorality.

Our joy is intense, dear daughters, bless you again in the holy “crusade of purity” that you have so opportunely business and you courageously continue under the powerful protection of the Virgin most pure, Mary Immaculate.

The “crusade of purity” …

The worthy and happy crusade name you have chosen and taxed at your beautiful big campaign features a brilliant cross, salvation beacon for the world, and evokes the glorious historical memories of the Crusades of the Christian peoples, the holy expeditions and battles under the sacred flags for the conquest of the holy places and to defend Catholic countries against invasions and threats of unbelievers. You also hear defend a Catholic area, the land of purity, there conquer and keep those that read like a cloud charged with the aroma of Christ forth fragrance in families, gatherings of friends, streets, assemblies, performances, public and private entertainment.

This is a crusade against the enemies of Catholic morality, against the perils create calmly current morality of peoples powerful waves of immorality that lead through the streets of the world and invade all social classes.

… made necessary by the current immorality

Today such a danger exists everywhere, the Church is not only to tell.

Even among foreign men to the Christian faith, the most far-sighted and more concerned with the public good in denouncing the high spirits terrible threats to the social order and the future of nations.

These excitations to uncleanness that multiply currently poisoning the roots of life, while the brake of evil is further weakened by the indulgence, we would call a better negation of part of more wider public consciousness that shows blind in front of the most reprehensible moral disorders.

This immorality is it more today than other previous eras? It might be unwise to assert, in any case, this is an idle question. Already the author of Ecclesiastes wrote this warning: “Do not say, how is it that the former days were better than these? For such a question is silly. All things are difficult. What has been is what will be, and what is done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun “(Qoheleth 7.10; Qoheleth 1: 8-9).

The life of man on earth – even in Christian centuries – is always a battle. We need to save our souls and those of our brethren in our time, and now the danger is certainly bigger because the devices that excite passions have extraordinarily increased, while at other times they were confined in circles restricted.

The progress of the press, cheap books like luxury books, photographs, illustrations, art prints of all kinds and of all colors and all costs, cinemas, variety shows and a hundred other ways misleading secrets and spread the attractions of evil, and put them in the hands of all, great and small, women and girls.

Is there not a way that spreads to everyone, bold and unbecoming to a young girl raised in a Christian? The movie does not he do attend performances that once took refuge in enclosures where they would never have dared set foot?

In the face of these dangers, the government has taken several countries of legislative or administrative measures to stem the flood of immorality. But in the area of customs, the external action of the authorities, even the most powerful, praiseworthy, useful and necessary as it is, will never succeed in getting these alone sincere and wholesome fruits that heal the souls on which must operate a more powerful force.

… in many areas.

The Church needs to work on souls, and service of Catholic Action, your action, in unity and under the direction of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, fighting the perils of misconduct in all areas that are open to you: in the fashion, apparel and clothing, hygiene and sport, in the field of social relations and entertainment.

Your weapons are your word and your example, your kindness and your support, weapons as evidenced from others and make possible and commendable behavior that honors you and honors your business.

We do not we propose to retrace here the sad picture too known disorders that present themselves to you: clothes so tight or as they seem made for rather put more into relief what they should veil; sports parts that unfold under conditions of clothes, exhibition and camaraderie, irreconcilable with the modesty even less demanding; dances, shows, interviews, readings, artwork, ornaments, where the desire of entertainment and fun accumulates the most serious dangers.

Instead, we wish to remember and put before you the principles of the Catholic faith in these matters, should inform your judgment, guide your conduct and your not, inspire and support your spiritual struggle.

Purity does caution that the fight against temptations

For it is a struggle it is.

The purity of the living souls of supernatural grace is preserved or never retain without a fight.

Blessed are you have received in your families, at the dawn of your life, from the cradle, with baptism, a higher life, the divine life. unconscious children a great gift and a great happiness, then you have not had to fight – as more mature souls less fortunate than you – to conquer such a high good; but you yourselves do not retain it without struggle.

If the purifying and sanctifying grace that has reconciled with God as daughters of adoption and heirs of heaven in your soul has erased the original sin, it has nonetheless left you sad legacy of Adam, who is this internal imbalance, the fight felt that even the great apostle Paul who, while taking delight in the law of God after the inward man, saw its members another law of sin (Romans 7.22 to 23), law passions and disorderly inclinations, which never allow themselves to fully tame, and with which, allied to the flesh and the world conspires an angel of Satan, the temptations molest souls.

This is the war that book between spirit and flesh so openly attested by Divine Revelation that with the exception of the Blessed Virgin, it is futile to imagine a life that can be both pure and lived without vigilance and without a fight.

Give not believe in the illusion of your soul insensible to excitations, invincible to the attractions and dangers. It is true that the habit often succeeds in making mind less susceptible to such impressions, especially when it is hijacked, absorbed in its forces by exercising a higher professional or intellectual activity. But imagine that all souls, so prone to passions can get unresponsive to stimuli caused by the images, colorful attractions of pleasure, stir and hold on the attention they would assume and believe that the malignant complicity these perilous instigations found in the instincts of the fallen human nature and disorderly can never stop or decrease.

… that the action of the “crusade” aims to support.

This inevitable fight, you will accept courageously and Christian.

The purpose of your joint action can not be to remove it completely, but it should aim to get that necessary spiritual battle is not made for more difficult and perilous souls by external circumstances, the atmosphere in which hearts who suffer the assaults must support and continue.

On the battlefields of the Church, or compete virtue and vice, you will always meet some characters whom God gave a fearless temper heroic. Supported by grace, they will leave no shake or hit by no pulse; they know openly maintained without corruption and pure amidst the filth around them, like a leaven of good fermentation and regeneration for the many souls – redeemed, too, by the blood of Christ – which mass around them.

Therefore, the purpose of your struggle is that Christian purity, salvation condition for souls becomes less difficult for all people of goodwill, so that the temptations born of external contingencies, do not exceed the limits of this resistance that ‘with the grace of God, poor force of many souls is able to oppose.

To achieve resolutions as holy and righteous as it is necessary to act on the environment and the flow of ideas that can influence effectively enough common action, so that individual and isolated action has limited or no effectiveness. If Unity makes strength, only a compact group and as many as possible of spirits resolved Christians and without fear, know where their conscience speaks and demands, shake off the yoke of some social, freedom from tyranny stronger today than ever, modes of all kinds, clothing patterns, patterns in the customs and social relationships.

Christian fashion design.

The method has, in itself, nothing bad.

It arises spontaneously from human sociability, following the impulse which inclines to be in harmony with others and with the habits of people among which were live.

God does not ask you to live out your time to stay indifferent to the demands of fashion as to make yourself ridiculous by dressing against taste and common uses of your contemporary, and never worry about it they like.

Thus the angelic St. Thomas Aquinas, he says that in external things of which man uses, there is no vice but the vice comes from the man who uses them immoderately compared to the uses of those with whom he lives, distinguishing itself in a strange way with the other, or by using things in a manner consistent or inconsistent with the established custom, but with a disordered sense, superabundance superbly decorated clothes, or worn with complacency or searched with exaggerated solicitude, while modesty and simplicity suffice to meet the decorum required ( Summa theologica , II has II ae , q. 169, art. 1, 2).

The same holy doctor finally adds that there meritorious act of virtue in feminine adornment when it conforms to the use, according to the state of the person and a good intention. When women wear decent ornaments in keeping with their status and dignity when they follow in this measure with the customs of their country, then adorn themselves is also an act of the virtue of moderation that prints a measured approach , attitude, clothing and all the outer movements (St. Thomas Aquinas, Expositio in Isaiam prophetam , ch. III, in fine ).

Attitude control that girls

In the attitude to adopt towards fashion, under the stars balance.

What God asks you is to remember always that fashion is not and can not be the supreme rule of your conduct, that above fashion and its requirements, there are higher and imperious laws , upper and immutable principles which in any case can not be sacrificed at the discretion of pleasure or caprice, and before whom the idol of fashion should know lowering his omnipotence fugitive.

These principles were proclaimed by God through the Church, by the saints and holy, by reason and Christian morality. These are signals that mark the limits beyond which do not flower lilies and roses, where purity, modesty, dignity and honor women not exhale their perfume, but where and reign breath unhealthy air lightness, ambiguous language, daring vanity, conceit in the heart as well as in clothing.

These are the principles that St. Thomas Aquinas states and recalls affecting the toilet of women ( Summa Theologica , II has II ae , q. 169, Art. 2), indicating what should be the order of our charity and our conditions: the good of our soul outweighs that of our body, and we must prefer to the advantage of our own bodies the good of the soul of our neighbor ( Ibid. , Q 26, s. 4-5. ).

So do not you see that there is a limit that no form of fashion can help overcome a limit beyond which fashion is a source of ruin for the soul of the woman and the ‘soul of another?

… who need to know the temptations they may cause.

Some girls may say that so determined to dress is more convenient and also more hygienic; but if it becomes for the salvation of the soul and a serious threat next, she certainly is not hygienic for your mind and it is your duty to give it up.

The desire to save their souls made heroic martyrs, such as Agnes and Cecilia, amid torments and lacerations their virginal body. You, sisters in faith in Christ’s love and esteem of virtue, you would not find in your heart the courage and strength to sacrifice a bit of well-being, a physical advantage, if we want to keep healthy and pure life of your souls?

If, for simple personal enjoyment, no one has the right to endanger the personal lives of others, is not it even less possible to compromise the salvation, so the very life of their souls?

If, as some claim, a bold fashion produces no bad impression on them, that they know the impression that others are feeling? Which insures that the others do not pull the wrong incentives?

You do not know the background of human frailty nor what corrupted blood runs off the wounds left in human nature by Adam’s sin with ignorance in intelligence, malice in the will, greed and fun weakness in respect of the property difficult in the passions of the senses to the point that man, soft as wax for evil, “sees what is best and approval, and attaches the worst” ( see Ovid, Metamorphoses 7: 20-21), because of the weight that always, like lead, leads to the bottom.

Oh ! how precisely it was observed that if some Christian suspected temptations and falls in others they cause by their dress and familiarities which, in their light, they give so little importance, they épouvanteraient their responsibility !

Advice for Christian mothers …

What we do not hesitate to add: O Christian mothers, if you knew what a future of anxieties and internal dangers, harm repressed doubts, bad contained shames you prepare your son and your daughters, by accustoming them imprudently living barely covered, making them lose the delicate sense of modesty, you blush of yourselves and you redouteriez shame you made to yourselves and the damage you cause to the children that heaven you entrusted to raise a Christian.

And what we say to mothers, we repeat many of believing women and even pious who, by agreeing to attend such bold fashion, are falling by their example the last hesitations that hold a lot of sisters away from this fashion which will become for them a source of spiritual ruin.

As long as certain provocative toilets remain the dubious notoriety and women of privilege as a sign that makes them recognize, we do not dare to adopt for himself. But when these toilets appear worn by people above all suspicion, we do not hesitate to go with the flow, a current that may cause the worst falls.

… and members of the “crusade.”

If he agrees that all Christian women have the courage to get in front of such serious moral responsibilities, you, dear girls, because of this strong feeling that you tapped into your faith and candor of virtue, you have glory of you being united paladines purity, in your holy crusade.

Isolated, your boldness would be of little value in opposing the invasion of the evil that surrounds you; closely united and framed, you will be strong enough and powerful legion to impose respect for the rights of Christian modesty.

Your sense of young Catholics, meaning refined and supported by the wisdom of faith and conscious practice of a solidly pious life, you will see and discern, in the light of the Spirit of God, with the help of his grace obtained through prayer and also with the help of advice requested those that Jesus Christ has placed as guides and teachers at your side, which, in the modes in the uses and the social conventions that come to you, fully acceptable, which is only tolerable, which is totally unacceptable.

The clear knowledge and deeply felt your job make you brave and loyal in mutual support, to accomplish it without hesitation, but with a resolution worthy of your youthful ardor.

Belle is the virtue of purity and smooth grace that shines not only in fact but also in speech that never oversteps the bounds of propriety and politeness and seasoning love the advice and warning . The chaste generation is also bursting with grace before God and before men.

In the days of trial, suffering, sacrifice and austere duties which we are, it is not afraid to go up all his power at the height of the serious obligations under Providence.

Today, dear daughters, the crusade for you is not in the sword, blood or martyrdom, but in the example, speech and exhortation. Against your energies and your designs stands, as a key enemy, the demon of impurity and licentiousness.

Raise your head high to heaven, where Christ and the Immaculate Virgin, his Mother, watching you. Be strong and unyielding in fulfilling your duty as Christians. Take the defense of the purity walking against corruption which softens youth. Give to your beloved country the service of inestimable value by working and cooperating effectively to spread in souls more purity and innocence; there, you will make them more cautious, more vigilant, straighter, stronger, more generous.

Grace, the Queen of Angels, winner of the insidious snake, all pure, all of high purity, supports and directs your efforts in this crusade that you inspired!

It bless your banner and crown candid trophies of your wins!

We plead in this direction, for the name of her divine Son We grant you with all my heart the Apostolic Blessing to you and to all those who have joined and will join you in your courageous campaign.

Reference

Pius XII, Address to young girls of Catholic Action of Rome, members of the crusade of purity , May 22, 1941.

URL source : http://www.clerus.org/bibliaclerusonline/pt/cj5.htm#cm.

Pope Pius XII – Fashion Must Never Be an Occasion of Sin

The Church does not reprove or condemn a fashion when it is intended to be a fair decorum and adornment of the body. However, she never fails to warn the faithful against its easy deviations. This positive attitude of the Church derives from higher motives than the merely aesthetic and hedonist ends defended by a new paganism.

She knows and teaches that the human body, a masterpiece of God in the visible world at the service of the soul, was elevated by the Divine Redeemer to be a temple and instrument of the Holy Ghost, and must be respected as such.

Its beauty, therefore, should not be exalted as an end per se and still less as in a way that degrades that acquired dignity.

In point of fact, it is indisputable that, besides an honest fashion, there is another immoral one, which is a cause of disturbance – if not a stimulus to evil – to tranquil spirits.

It is always difficult to set out universal rules for the boundaries between honesty and immorality, since the moral evaluation of clothing relies on many factors. However, the alleged relativity of fashion regarding different times, places, persons and formations is not a valid reasont a priori not to issue a moral judgment about this or that fashion that transgresses the boundaries of a normal modesty.

Modesty, almost of itself, immediately sounds an alert to the presence of indecency and seduction, materialism and luxury – or even just frivolity. If the architects of the immoral fashions are skilfull in disguising perversion by mixing it with an ensemble of honest aesthetic elements, still more skilfull and quick is human sensuality to discover it and feel its fascination.

One who has sensitivity to discern the insidious character of evil should not be censured, as if this were an effect of an inner depravatity: on the contrary, such sensitivity is a sign of purity of spirit and vigilance over the passions.

No matter how broad and changeable the relative morals of fashion may be, when a danger is noticed,there is always an absolute norm to be maintained after having heard the admonition of conscience: fashion must never be a near occasion of sin.

REFERENCE: Pius XII, Allocution to the International Congress of High Fashion,
November 8, 1957, Petrópolis: Vozes, 1958, pp. 12-13.

Pope Pius XII – Nudity in sport, neither necessary nor appropriate

A Scientific Congress of Sport and Physical Education was held in Rome, 800 participants. 

Receiving them in his palace in Castel Gandolfo, the Holy Father spoke as follows:

(…) The Revelation thus teaches us about the body of the man of sublime truths, that the natural sciences and art are unable to discover for themselves, truths that give the body a new value and a higher dignity and therefore a higher motive to earn respect.

Sport and Gymnastics certainly have nothing to fear from these religious and moral principles properly applied; must not excluding some forms that are in opposition with respect told now.

Sound doctrine teaches to respect the body, but not in the estimate more than is fair. The principle is this: body care, effect of increase of the body, yes; body worship, deification of the body, not any more than the deification of race and blood with their somatic presuppositions or their components.

The body does not occupy humans first place; nor the earthly and mortal body, as it exists now, not the glorified body and spiritualized, as it will be one day. This is not the body, taken from the slime of the earth, belongs the primacy in the human compound, but in the spirit, the spirit soul.

No less important is also another fundamental rule contained in a passage of Scripture. Indeed, we read in the letter of St. Paul to the Romans: “I see in my members another law which opposes the law of my mind and makes me a slave to the law of sin which is in my members” ( Roman 7, 23).

One could describe more vividly the daily drama that is woven human life. The instincts and forces of the body are felt, and, stifling the voice of reason, outweigh the energy of goodwill since the day their full subordination to the spirit was lost by original sin.

In the use and intensive exercise the body must reflect this fact. Also there is a gym and a sport which, by their austerity, contribute to curb the instincts, and there are other forms of sport that awaken them, either by violent force, either by the seductions of sensuality .

From the aesthetic point of view also, for the pleasure of beauty, the admiration of rhythm in dance and gymnastics, instinct can insinuate its venom in souls.

He further there in sports and gymnastics, in rhythmic exercises and dance, some nudism is neither necessary nor appropriate. It is not without reason that a few decades an observer completely impartial had to admit: “What in this area interested in the mass, it is not the beauty of nudity, but the nakedness of beauty “. In such a way to practice gymnastics and sports, religious and moral sense vetoes.

In a word, sport and gymnastics should not control and dominate, but to serve and help. It is their function, and that’s where they find their justification. (…)

Reference

Pius XII, Address to physical education teachers , November 8, 1952, in documents of Pope Pius XII, 1952, p. 516-517.

Or cf. Source URL : http://www.clerus.org/bibliaclerusonline/pt/csb.htm#i4.